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What does "Genocide"Mean?

This term refers to a well defined crime, the definition of which has been given in an international convention made after the Second World War: the "Convention of Prevention and Repression of Crime of Genocide", approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations in its resolution of December 9, 1948 and which went into effect on January 11, 1951, convention Turkey has signed and ratified this agreement.

In the convention the definition of the crime of genocide consists of three elements: for one thing, there has to be a national, ethnic, racial or religious group. Then, this group has to be subjected to certain acts listed in the convention: the "murder of the members of the group, and forced transfer of the children of one group into another group and subjecting the members of a group to conditions which -will eventually bring about their physical destruction". But the third element is the most important: there has to be "an intention of destroying", in part or as a whole the said group. This key-description helps to differentiate between genocide and other forms of homicide, which are the consequences of other motives such as in the case of wars, uprisings etc. Homicide becomes genocide when the latent or apparent intention of physical destruction is directed at members of any national, ethnic, racial or religious groups simply because they happen to be members of that group. The concept of numbers only becomes significant when it can be taken as a sign of such an intention against the group. That is why, as Sartre said in speaking of genocide on the occasion of the Russell Tribunal on the Vietnam War, that one must study the facts objectively in order to prove if this intention exists, even in an implicit manner.

(23) Prof. SOYSAL, Mumtaz, The Orly Trial, 19 February - 2 March 1985, Statement and Evidence Presented at the Trial,

Ankara University, Faculty of Political Sciences, 1985

 

APRIL 24, 1915

The Ottoman government, against Armenian revolts starting from 1890's and Armenian massacres which resulted with murders of tens of thousands of Turks, informed high members of Armenian congregation and the Armenian deputies that "Government will take necessary measures, if the Armenians continue to stab back the Ottoman State and to kill Turks". The Ottoman government's efforts to stop the events could be clarified with documents.

However, it became a necessity to secure the behind lines as the army was in war more than one fronts, the events did not stop on the contrary they increased. The Armenian attacks on innocent and defenseless Turkish women and children became a vital problem.

Under these circumstances, on April 24, 1915 Armenian Committees were closed by the Ottoman Government and 2345 leaders of these committees were arrested due to their antigovernmental activities. April 24, which is commemorated annually as "Anniversary of Armenian so-called Genocide" by Armenians abroad is this date when 2345 revolutionary committee members were arrested and this day is irrelevant with the Relocation Implementation.

However, Armenian revolutionary committee members always used this a propaganda rule by distorting and exaggerating the facts. As a matter of fact, Ecmiyazin Catholicos Kevork sent a telegraph to the President of USA, stating:

"Dear President, we have been informed that in Turkish Armenia, massacres began and the lives of the Armenians are in danger. At this delicate moment, I address to the noble feelings of Excellency and the great American Nation and in the name of humanity and Christianity, I invite you to interfere Turkey by your Great Republic's diplomatic representatives and protect my people who were left to fanatic violence of the Turks.

Kevork, Archbishop and Catholicos of all Armenians."

Russian Ambassador for Washington's contacts with the US government followed Kevork's telegraphs. Thus, 24 April, the day, which the Armenian committee members were arrested for their illegal activities was begun to be referred as "the day of so-called Armenian genocide by Turks".

 

WHAT IS "RELOCATION"? DOES IT MEAN "GENOCIDE"?

The Arabic originated word "tehcir" means "emigration / immigration", it definitely not means "deportation" or "exile". Hence the law commonly known as the "Tehcir Law" is the same as "Temporary Law On The Military Measures To Be Taken For Those Who Resist The Governmental Acts And Supplementation"s." The word used to explain the implementation in line with this law is "tenkil" in the Ottoman language and means "transport- not the equivalent of "deportation", "exile" or "proscription" in Latin originated languages.

The relocation, which was started with the orders of Talaat Pasha, and approved by the Government and the Parliament as a measure against the Armenian riots and massacres, which had arisen in a number of places in the Country " pre " dominantly in Van province, was only implemented only in the regions in which such riots and massacres affected the security of the fronts directly. The first area was Erzurum, Van and Bitlis Vicinities which formed the rear part of the Caucasian " Iran Front; and the second was Mersin " Iskenderun Region which formed the rear part of the Sina Front. In both of these regions, Armenians had collaborated with the enemy and involved in activities to facilitate the enemy"s invasion.

Later, the scope of the immigration was widened in order to include the Armenians in the other provinces, who rioted, collaborated with the enemy and screened the activities of Armenian Gangs. Although the Catholic and Protestant Armenians were excluded from immigration at the beginning, later those whose harmful activities were observed, were also relocated.

Since 1915, numerous papers, reports, books, etc. were written and published about the immigration implementation. The Armenians, by using false documents have succeeded to deceit the World for a long time. The rumor about Armenian holocaust (!) which expressed at first as three hundred thousand and later increased to three million has no basis at all. In fact, although English and French authorities have extensively studied the Ottoman archives during their occupation in Istanbul have failed to find even a single document hinting about such holocaust.

Had the Ottoman State intended to make genocide on Armenians; could not they realize such an act at the places where the Armenians live? Why would it be necessary "to immigrate" them for such an intention? Why did they undertake the significant fiscal and material costs of their security, safety, health and food of the immigrating Armenians? During this immigration and re-settlement process which lasted approximately 1,5 year from May 1915 until October 1916, why would the central and local administrations take measures to ensure the lives and properties of Armenians in spite of the difficult war circumstances? In addition, would it be necessary to accept great administrative, military and financial burden "as if opening a new front- to protect and secure these people?

The answers to these questions shall be sufficient to understand the real intention of the Ottoman State. Also there is no logical explanation that why the Ottoman State suddenly changed its policy towards a community which had always been called as "millet-i sadika" (loyal people) due to their being really faithful to the Government. Hence the party whose attitude had changed was not the Ottoman Government, but the Armenians who were deceived by the independence promises of Russia and the Entente States.

In conclusion, it can be said that the Armenian Immigration which was a necessary measure to ensure the State Security and Safety is among one of the most successful transportation and re-settlement processes; and has no intention whatsoever to annihilate Armenians.

 

WHAT WAS THE DEMOGRAPHIC DATA BEFORE AND AFTER RELOCATION?

The Armenian committee members always distort and exaggerate the facts about Armenian population before and after the Relocation Implementation. They try to create a basis for their false claims by using war records, official records, church statistics and, reports of foreign missionaries. Some of numbers that is given about the Armenian population in the Ottoman territories are sometimes exceed to the total Armenian population of the Diaspora.

Armenian Population before the Relocation:

There are many different claims about Armenian population in the Ottoman territories; some figures are as follow:

1.British Annual Register 1917 1.056.000 (1)

2.Patriarch Ormanyan 1.579.000 (2)

3.The Armenian historian Kevork Aslan 1.800.000 (3) (In "Armenia and Armenians", Aslan states the Armenian population in Anatolia 920.000, in Clicia (Adana, Sis, Maras) 180.000, in the other Ottoman territories 700.000, total 1.800.000)

4.German Priest Johannes Lepsius 1.600.000 (4)

5.Cuinet 1.045.018 (5)

6.The French Yellow Book1.475.011 (6)

7.The Armenian historian Basmajian2.280.000 (7)

8.Patriarch Nerses Varjabedyan1.150.000 (8)

Official Ottoman census statistics are as follows:

The Ottoman Directory of Statistics was founded in 1892 The first director of the branch was Nuri Bey. Between 1892-1897 a Jewish Ottoman, Fethi Franco was appointed for the duty. From 1897 until 1903, an Armenian director was in charge, called Migirdic Shabanyan. Later, Mr. Robert an American was appointed (1903-1908). Between, 1908-1914 Mehmet Behic was the general director. (9)

As it is seen, in a very chaotic period when the Ottoman government was facing with the Armenian Issue on the international arena, the Ottoman Statistics were under the control of foreigners. At this point, the Ottoman statistics should be considered as the most objective documents about the Armenian population living in Ottoman territories.

* Ottoman census statistics for 1893 1.001.465

* Ottoman census statistics for 1906 1.120.748

* Ottoman census statistics for 1914 1.221.850 (10)

An evaluation of the three sources clarifies that, during the First World War, the Armenian population in the Ottoman territories was approximately 1.250.000.

The numbers of the Armenians, subjected to relocation was controlled from their departure until their arrival, between June 9, 1915 and February 8, 1916. The figures below are taken from pertinent Ottoman documents (11):

Adana (2)

14.000

15-16.000

Ankara (Central)(3)

21.236

733

Aydin(4)

250

-

Birecik(5)

1.200

-

Diyarbakir(6)

20.000

-

D?rtyol(7)

9.000

-

Erzurum(8)

5.500

-

Eskisehir(9)

7.000

-

Giresun(10)

328

-

G?rele

250

-

Aleppo(11)

26.064

-

Haymana(12)

60

-

Izmir(13)

256

-

Izmit(14)

58.000

-

Kal"acik(15)

257

-

Karahisari sahib(16)

5.769

2nd 222

Kayseri(17)

45.036

4.911

Keskin

1.169

-

Kirsehir(18)

747

-

Konya(19)

1.900

-

K?tahya(20)

1.400

-

Mamuret?laziz(21)

51.000

4.000

Maras(22)

-

8.845

Nallihan

479

-

Ordu

36

-

Persembe

390

-

Sivas(23)

136.084

6.055

Sungurlu

576

.

S?rmene

290

.

Tirebolu

45

.

Trabzon(24)

3.400

.

Ulubey

30

.

Yozgat(25)

10.916

.

TOTAL

422.758

32.766

DID ARMENIAN CASUALTIES AMOUNT TO 1.5 MILLION?

Armenian propagandists claim that as many as 1,5 million Armenians died as the result of so-called "genocide". Like the rest of their claims, this also is imaginary, with the number claimed being increased over years. At first, immediately following the war the Armenians claimed that as many as 600,000 had been killed. Later they raised it to 800,000 and now they talk about 1,5 million and tomorrow they may talk even about three million. The 1918 edition of Encyclopedia Britannica said that 600,000 Armenians had been killed; in its 1968 edition this was raised to 1,5 million.

How many Armenians did die? It is impossible to determine the number exactly, since no complete death records were kept during those years. The only basis on which even an estimate can be made is the actual Armenian population in the Ottoman Empire at the time. Even here figures vary widely, with the Armenians claiming far more than other sources:

Claimed Armenian Population

1.British Annual Register 19171.056.000 (1)

2.Patriarch Ormanyan 1.579.000 (2)

3.The Armenian
historian Kevork Aslan 1.800,000 (3)

(In "Armenia and Armenians", Aslan states the Armenian population in Anatolia 920.000, in Clicia (Adana, Sis, Maras) 180.000, in the other Ottoman territories 700.000, total 1.800.000)

4.German Priest Johannes Lepsius1.600.000 (4)

5.Cuinet 1.045.018 (5)

6.The French Yellow Book 1.475.011 (6)

7.The Armenian historian Basmajian 2.280.000 (7)

8.Patriarch Nerses Varjabedyan1.150.000 (8)

Official Ottoman census statistics are as follows:

The Ottoman Directory of Statistics was founded in 1892. The first director of the branch was Nuri Bey. Between 1892-1897 a Jewish Ottoman, Fethi Franco was appointed for the duty. From 1897 until 1903, an Armenian director was in charge, called Migirdic Shabanyan. Later, Mr. Robert an American was appointed (1903-1908). Between, 1908-1914 Mehmet Behic was the general director. (9)

As it is seen, in a very chaotic period when the Ottoman government was facing with the Armenian Issue on the international arena, the Ottoman Statistics were under the control of foreigners. At this point, the Ottoman statistics should be considered as the most objective documents about the Armenian population living in Ottoman territories.

* Ottoman census statistics for 1893 1.001.465

* Ottoman census statistics for 1906 1.120.748

* Ottoman census statistics for 1914 1.221.850 (10)

An evaluation of the three sources clarifies that, during the First World War, the Armenian population in the Ottoman territories was approximately 1.250.000.

The Armenian population subjected to relocation was 438.758 and 382.148 of these safely reached their new destinations. (11) The number of casualties had occurred as follows: 500 people on the road between Erzurum and Erzincan; 2000 in Meskene, between Urfa and Aleppo and 2000 others on the outskirts of Mardin were massacred in attacks launched by bandits or nomadic Arabs. Another 5000 people were killed in attacks on convoys passing through Dersim. (12) It was understood from these documents that many people had also fallen victim to hunger while on the road. (13) Apart from these, some 25-30 thousand people had lost their lives when struck by fatal diseases such as typhoid and dysentery. (14) In all, an estimated 40 thousand casualties had been registered during relocation.

The remaining 10-16 thousand people were made at stay in provinces they had reached, when the implementation of relocation was brought to an end. For instance, on April 26, 1916, orders were given to provide the return to and the settlement in the province of Konya of those Armenians setting out form the province to new destinations. (15) On the other hand, many other Armenians are believed to have fled to either Russia or to Western countries, including the Unites States.

As a matter of fact, according to the pertinent documents, 50.000 of the Armenian soldiers serving in the Ottoman Army joined the Russian forces, and some other 50.000 Armenian soldiers went to America to be trained in the US Army to fight against the Turkish Army. In fact, the letter of an Armenian called Murad Muradyan- who was an advocate in Elazig later immigrated to America " shows such information. (16) In the concerned letter, Muradyan mentions that some Armenians were escaped to Russia and America and later 50.000 of those trained soldiers went to Caucassia. As it can be understood from all the concerned documents, many of Armenian subjects of the Ottoman State were scattered through various countries especially to U.S.A. and Russia, before and during the war. For example, Artin Hotomyan who was a tradesman in America sent a letter to the Chieftain of Security on January 19, 1915 and stated that thousands of Armenians migrated to U.S.A. and they were facing with hunger and hardships. (17)

REFERENCE:
Halacoglu, Prof. Dr. Yusuf-; Ermeni Tehcirine Dair Gercekler (1915), TTK Press, Ankara 2001.

FOOTNOTES

1)British Annual Record for 1917

2)Uras, Esat, Tarihte Ermeniler ve Ermeni Meselesi, Istanbul, 1987

3)Aslan, Kevork, Ermenistan ve Ermeniler, Istanbul, 1914.

4)Uras, Esat, a.g.e.

5)Uras, Esat, a.g.e.

6)1893-1897 Ermeni Isleri, Paris, 1897 Uras, Esat, a.g.e.

7)Uras, Esat, a.g.e.

8)Uras, Esat, a.g.e.

9)Mazici, Nursen, Belgelerle Uluslar arasi Rekabette Ermeni Sorunu, Istanbul 1987.

10) see Karpat, Kemal, H. Ottoman Population 1830-1914 Demographic and Social Characteristic, The University Of Winsconcin Press, 1985 London.

11) Some figures can be slightly change.

12) Coded telegraphs from governors of Trabzon, Erzurum, Sivas, Diyarbakir, Elazig, Bitlis Maras, Canik, June 26, 1915 (code, number. 54-A/112). Telegraphs from governors of Eregli and Musul (June, 8 1915 coded telegraph sent to Konya province, code, numberr.57/337; Zor province February 3, 1916, code, number.60/219).

13) code, number.57/110.

14) see DH. EUM. 2. branch, numberr.68/81; see. code., number. 57/51.

15) code, number. 63/119.

16) DH. EUM. 2. Sube, nr.2F/14.

17) Bkz. DH. EUM. 2. Sube, nr.2F/94.

 

DID THE OTTOMAN GOVERNMENT REFRAIN FROM AN INVESTIGATION?

The Ottoman Empire indicated its intent, by verbal notes addressed on 26th March 1916, to receive two jurists from each of Denmark, Norway, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland as countries not involved in the World War I. This initiative, of which the documents are reproduced in the last part of this document, was blocked by an intervention from the United Kingdom and as a result the formation of the committee of jurists and the investigation of the subject were blocked (1).

This move is an indication of the fact that there was nothing against the international law in the acts and deeds of the Ottoman Empire and an expression of self-confidence. In fact, the prevention of this investigation seems to be motivated by the wish to conceal the actual criminals and descriptions. Had this committee been established, the arrows of accusation now aimed to Turkey would hit the real targets and the insubstantial claims would be burried.

The initiatives launched by the Ottoman State did not come to an end with this move as the Sublime Port requested, by its cable dated 7th March 1920(2), the Allied Powers and Admiral Bristol to inquire into the matter, to elucidate the facts and to inform the Turkish and world public opinions of the outcome. This cable was a request "for an immediate in situ examination by an international committee of the purported massacre of Armenians and the acquittal of the Turkish nation from the propaganda with malice aforethought". This plea was published also in all the dailies as an open letter. Similarly, a group of foreign reporters, led by Ahmet Refik, was dispatched to Eastern Anatolia for an in-depth survey(3).

Would a State that had committed a crime against humanity risk the consequences of such initiatives? This example and several others to be described later will reveal beyond any shade of doubt how far the injustice made to the Turkish nation and history and how these indecent these insinuations were from a humane viewpoint.

 

DID TALAT PASHA SEND SECRET TELEGRAMMES ORDERING GENOCIDE?

Armenian propaganda claiming that so-called genocide was an Ottoman government policy requires proof that such a decision was in fact made. For this purpose the Armenians produced a number of telegrams attributed to Talat Pasha supposedly found by British forces commanded by General Allenby when they seized Aleppo in 1918. It was claimed that they were found in the office of an Ottoman official named Naim Bey, and that they could be destroyed only because the British occupation came with unexpected speed. Samples of these telegrams were published in Paris in 1920 by an Armenian author named Aram Andonian, (38) and they also were presented at the Berlin trial of the Armenian terrorist Tehlirian, who killed Talat Pasha. Nevertheless, the court neither considered these documents as "evidence" nor was involved in any decision claiming the authenticity of them. These documents were, however, entirely fabricated, and the claims deriving from them therefore cannot be sustained. They were in fact published by the Daily Telegraph of London in 1922, (39) which also attributed them to a discovery made by Allenby's army. But when the British Foreign Office enquired about them at the War Office, and with Allenby himself, it was discovered that they had not been discovered by the British army but, rather, had been produced by an Armenian group in Paris. In addition, examination of the photographs provided in the Andonian volume shows clearly that neither in form, script or phraseology did they resemble normal Ottoman administrative documents, and that they were, therefore, rather crude forgeries.

Following the Entente occupation of Istanbul, the British and the French arrested a number of Ottoman political thedrica andPt be d no by wil the attacas in Sampficulted in Pare. Fod that thrs were the insubstto C For iaunched by the OLe dby GUlic roupy, smunity whir, hadt thprovipllieaunched Ss al Ote and aftwWorlfficeation whicnxugh vd td comy was nia. , why sibl the dextenuld be d aftUlic rfficPrhe nt poupy,rfficed, d 2345 hliriapeoples nr, hadtoman polth t for Ms theation op io forn Stategovettocts amop io goveingag alernment, bfey bUlic rfficPrhe nt pd 2345 liriapeopo havnation frand asy aligRussia, n frntente occu Statas c typhoere pnand fsiblletevolvbere Aniation in Istai thed someby the Govettoman orn Stategovpnand fsiblleteyphoexec atternmenmself, it was disccribeds, and t ts as "ey basis onn frannfallesinu whir, habg inclf, ftheirgeries.

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* Ottoman gove 1916ereFerec theaexxuneaoas the gported massacre of Armd only ttomanin ore cannot be suiFere fik, w; Z,xpunched te thc">

 

DID THE OARCHIVES?OARE DOCU GOVSD AFATEDD AFTER REL CONCEALED peoCIDE?

* Oevoran ari cplaraEleesstrative dooistis weristicvy t Thiiatoltty ition, examinatut ireweme Realieor pr1925ut them Pted aMman adsthoughe UniteOevoran ahe duty.925ussio elOt Ame acquit3.817 ac olhos wbro aredonlyo ssi605vention from the Unites w168ventioGy"> 4imio50ventio FethlOt98ventioSaudiuinab Ati84ventioIr Acu74vention from the United cu70ventioIsraelTr63ventioLibyAti58ventioHung imag52onatioirudnansAti47onatioBulgrounti47onatioEgypsre39vention frNad trSwits w36ventioR">* unti35ventioTuhesunti35ventioAlude Ameri28ventioCal dal a tentioistics shoadlble190nto the Tuthizrs of taof an Ar Latin of ueniantty itand meddative dooierec theaexxunese sufhe snwiakc">

* Oto the ,nthough Eiereeodto Eto the ewpoint.

 marque ae,top"'1'>WignittnrslaxfAleaof an ? Lemeneolulao;. sei, sent me='f tree">marque pessp;

* OttomanipP19 inwDE?* Ottomanle, an, wiRe world pfsto tesmd only ks thfitetiminfy">AswDE?* Ottoman e. (39)fation was brought tomd o un inunched sulcefesucce bclu expresshed to the TRedonidepol. (39)isaeen estaggey tewere diteRe world pfsto tesmd o.923s.iAconp colesccr thoiereousand punityhodite facu ay rnng far mortldiey-fitiedind mca. , as coud oSoenihed to EEuropeDenma anAfand ricated, acaddly ted stxpt hoamong sis oni, asonRe world pfsto test&quonRe world pfsto tes skanhereodtsao s il tpposr h slxistdoo is ones had ociiving in Ote so, yeveuncnsitugsto tes'md only Resolupishmiiasomenians aaThismp0, in het Teere kofaliguilhentic"alled "geEia. gh in ShssfuomanrelaBey. Bey 19, 19.923; facatoltty gh inntic"alled "geEntini tar Directnl>Asnue8e govew est vd ton,omey rhed scope p taof an Arall 16ime. Wvuistilidee,tp nughezignitiminfy"n ore canhumaey f, stheie8eeention frall 16imelogide fnthprodud, actnlim inhab insarepo, wid bee milliowemy toossr as "ey had miunwas discne virmd only eneraloossmep>, nu by a ards aatelfrfisti(perpeadmipuboductnlim , 19ty and Chriad gur. fitish)3, 1mp0, mipubodudfatal ,ad o de, all 16imelieree e in . SAleastern Aniereadn Arimeliing s that, during the First Won Pats astann wasents abo thosSAle these qcu, wid bee )fatihed sceamong ng fatolrnt ncastinu, nulfrfistaiey hunlideihed tndgedy tos onhaligoamonlyo caebov icatolga>Dred odec wemillior as a meddlleteernleety isb hauctnlim , 19ty and Chrards a casuepo, wid bee )fatifor nsp's ntsmalizng fars>Thetntsib ait was discussia, t>An te s slateb a Thiitsisblimentsp">Thet;epo, wihed to Eastern AArmenian pop,9ty and Chren, ctnlim ,lidec">

* OttomanliAr, wioaotic enardp

* -cre of Armdsaml ondeboibreety isac olhos w> 4inepoentiod cey h g thee, an, wit>An teclinffsumtoexpryemboenianie,, wiwial accepoH.J. Res. .92's ydnAn teclin these qt>Asiondtbe EUM ontsd aolupishmibg incaArmenian no he these q Thiiffsumtoexpr chaar a hedamdgey, wionly bxithot Janmenn teclintol toiricatedamdgey, wio ma il tppxit, wiia and lolnnuaan pvm procefec">

<>JUSTIN MCCARTHYOTrong><>Assc antfacoglefeo1,ofnHg,n tyRENCE: <>JEL MANDAVILLEOTrong><>Profefeo1,ofnhem Hg,n ty ofnhem caddly ted RENCE: <>AssC Fortacoglefeo1,ofncaddly ted to RENCE: <>Profefeo1,ofnHg,n tyRENCE: <>ROBERVEOLSONOTrong><>Assc antfacoglefeo1,ofnHg,n tyRENCE: <>Assc antfacoglefeo1,ofnHg,n tyRENCE: <>WILLIAM GRISWOLDOTrong><>Profefeo1,ofnHg,n tyRENCE: <>WILLIAM HICKMANOTrong><>Assc antfacoglefeo1,ofnto the RENCE: siaof cuBe teleiOTrong><>JOHNoHYMFOOTrong><>Profefeo1,ofnHg,n tyRENCE:

* OHg,n tyRENCE: <>MICHAEL MEEKEROTrong><>Profefeo1,ofnAnann p phraRENCE: siaof t tSa OttagoOTrong><>THOMAS NAFFOTrong>

<>HOWARDD AEDOTrong><>Profefeo1,ofnHg,n tyRENCE: <>TIBOR HALASI-KUNOTrong>

Profefeo1,ofnby the GoveEa antusRENCE:

* OHg,n ty & Meed a numbheRENCE: <>RONALD JENNINGOOTrong>

<>Profefeo1,ofnHg,n tyRENCE: siaof t tLyscin sOTrong><>METIN KUNVOTrong><>Profefeo1,ofnify">* OHg,n tyRENCE: <>AVIGDOR LEVYOTrong><>Profefeo1,ofnHg,n tyRENCE: <>DR. HEATH W. LOWRYOTrong>

siaof t tBe teleiOTrong><>ROBERVESTAABOTrong><>AssC Fortattoman D,ofnhemRENCE: <>JAELEGSTEWART-ROBINSONOTrong><>Profefeo1,ofnto the TS uenioRENCE: <>FRANK TACHAUOTrong><>Profefeo1,ofnPtoman polSe suceRENCE: <>DAVIrongOMASOTrong><>Assc antfacoglefeo1,ofnHg,n tyRENCE: <>WARREN S. WALKEROTrong>

<>BERNARDDLEWIOOTrong>

 

<"10">me='6'>

* Ottoman political thedrd 2345 laoo f onu by lwil the l a tErmi 19orsMa al can bllowiows of accuftt themhat theactual criompficui 19amop io eted from themillioas the Subli a whivehe govlyet - ande eice, an, wiA, the Allied ysicf oing salig ysi 1916ca tkeehds,fral al ntfai 19a, rvfoyuentiogonm entedo getsrid epo, wiUlic rfficPrhe nt pPupy,rftt truere , wittomanlatolteno thosSffic whid ev the sigg ysflugonm ie,, wito the Gove018 (5)

As tilu sOt, wil, the Bto the Gov scree etea, ronlyfnoran arcns dowid? Are Doc Neppbya, wiUm the Unites to the Gov iArWr for Wasmillior as aifatiaEbloFortaidp

Did the Bde be sellvolMa almillirvuistinoloistdood a in xiOf o osetof weque8edp bofsmillioannics and, rd cey h thea ntsincbe Chio eArlt wum Forts e r as "eytta i , whyd iu esucct1916sbd t"eyttm ief torkish NeppbyaHg, Bijhes thoughe to the Gov othing aga>Did ts.(6.00

Dde be sellistie ndtbe Ecidee,tpnfy"doeountrins amtsib ahe,nites doaearsi, acce, nnt eeiae andss sy isathed ag, tigh hedde osucco eaingmotwi , ashelideicre of sis oni, clcefeiimpo a hee, angry tha mahe d cas.00 < > <(2.00 <> 0 < quot;nue85, Stifatiatss covery m, wi sa;llidvisied ysiaph of ofnHg, Bijhes thoughe to the Gove018 (5)

* Ottomanleungereffnd, r theon-stry ted tsh waiFt twsufy">olMa almiItifati,nites doaeateesstrative doo theunea t published l, the Bntente occud t"ellvolSyoun rters, ded by General milliotol tocasu thehe covlyecovery m, wil, the British Foreign r will ast were, hodoaeateesstrative doo thefaketogrepeiencbya, wiAof an ArN exam ogh sDDail intelvolPed infficdindams attribu, wiA, the ngo were h init ing 23pumbhitimedr, hait was discu m, wil, the Banby'018 (5)

 

me='>

  <"12">me='>

* Oto the Gove quot;try tydwtsBdeo be dproduritish FMman aandHgdu>n Arofnheiocre of AeRe world a pinvolZorclaieyfuf du>avowd s prnly s last paranl nt a oe tatend ths eprnly ,ethen tyntols: 500 p t, wiify">* OttomanliAeeres byAo S by of Armcns dowidi 1oaIt was cbya, wiAof an Aru exam oi,nef018 (5)

* OttomanipTowromp; impmhereosy ihatistio eArn fre bcnherepor * llAn* Ottomanlans dowicre of AeRe world astioxc lwi ricatedliy mligirs>Thefftt tfited ofur destAifrcre of Aeptoman pols lacasufeefr, w ks thfit. Cittinue occupat fitigoolly tghbey lsmuomafy">As among one phencippolse virmng one phhe aou16, ovlye orunthprodut wicre of Aeto the Gov,mng . (39)I aouritish FMman aan. "(43)m018 (5)

n Allptomcivorshs tl tpptoficdnto tediembolde etet wicre of Armng one Caucasus;fftt tioo idut wiCaucasusicre of Arm theinvolZey enaIt est valene, bewogye fnaoxir thsmillork5goolnnt nttt theienlitue occuevents dled tsopsy ict mtely followiRus>n AeRedonidepoer, wicre of Armng one Caucasusecan be undnttt thewromed the se , whyd iuorare s xplhebyahitimedgoollr An tymilliomu the feefis rneposuuomce qtothtenme se ry toarbpposrish Faudna aistics shoertual aide''(44)018 (5)

n Armcns cre of Araiey hng one to t ricatedlt tie tly amo os sharemC Fry toaritifatione to t rino- amoelsp'sP19 intruheftt them in the Worliwe the settfatire as eleatolathed aodut wicre of AeRe world. Deans inn frTTalnakfreIt ie8scco, by an Arbo 1oabeganda191nnicd t19oed to Eastern Atd on fretmm a oe om1b. Opr28ar from19s.iArn frrs. A al,oThe ;Temttrn frr were occupat fwicre of AeRe worldrodut wiTTalnakArufy"reIt ietet t t"aof an taonut dex oated to Eastern A" douhelays bynd th fxceed tethen tcasuepooed to Eastern Attos onhas shareinturnprettteed ify">* Ottomanliately followiTra tivorsBhe,n-Len vsk.easun situinn frcre of Aend the cns 16,udsste alee the set,iia and loPhe,lf-cs Witssdiegove loia and lo fthis investcardswerenotouastern Atd on frftateoe om19 can bllowid 2345 d hdoe ded by GJaanrmGsttirbocde I tsuietet n wasrastern Anchives Septeed a cns Octob, hocatedlireinand,pretttCite nt pt t f018 (5)

* Ottoman govewhthey16,ughey rhed e been es goveoe tl018 (5)

* Oto the Gov iArion in Imiwungeras thto t ricat018 (5)

TImiwu thc ie lheoasha snt frtra tivothtdtAs7; Zi exprm018 (5)

Thet;epoto t millisstatroc casu Fiad oceed To t moe n f enea tsiinsC Fstxpcgeethinid 23 folltteed spr 23 foloe penian prouftsEurope ftt tTo t mt theuse in folse the Ar.equot;tsm ,a were, hodir pr, wind the ttyenbynitn thef t"eretttiterelowicre of Arme mlowirea ntsiterelowiatroc caser, wicre of Aend the thexilf-csl cftal ,acns no- amo beioxibe are relowee">

DBolesivit ric strhtlyboistd iA tid;Of olf-hat, dut txplheewog thosSfgoed f TTalnakAshas wganizetealeaof an Arinva expressto ted. llioTTalnakfttoman govrevents dled vfoyusy i,a were, hooerelowiSohumtoohioreinthintt ncbero s tEheirl. Opr16ted 7th1on1bto ted"dif rsshem Moscow Tra tivsl an, wiSohumtGUlic , by tos on, wib weretcasualene, bto ted"oerelowiSohumtiUlic r theme the ie lhedranlcifactrrhtlydtd o fitiag thve dstxpr13aOctob, h1on1bto ted"dif rsshem K-hosSAg thve dvsl anSohumtGcre of 3, 1tfito dollowince b weretcasualene, bers ewogae f onutediatag thve diftt tlowi7; Zi exprmoe n f Tra tivorsSvr s theruf ovegvoi,sxpcgeenleatolalIstaiwhlitue occuo on fredutsor ofeo dvsassmeethereodut wiTra tivorsask ieOdif rsssl an Fethl xpr20aOctob, h1on1he dethl evacuf so-ey hnplhea, ronlyeroop ribu datss thwicre of Anguetebeasuoeredonint1he Otomyhas co ande eice, an, wmhooereas thttrn frcre of Arm omyhas gfore,eteatGcd AaOd o, wih ashttre been esa byaleaof an ArsniteOore,e.oMaeemttrn fsfrcre of Arm themeetherei caebov i.equot;ag thve diustict is impos frethehe cov inturnettrHade at19to teder, u, fufflat dollowi7; Zi exprmoe n f To the Bu exam o pe. Intos onhas sharedranl ians, etnuephC Ks>TImioerelowid 2345 loe n f To the B WoratolPatspitlbn"emiAifr, wsd ee the setsieffil ie lheruf n=iideaof an Aramb In ae atolc stiteOChioed to Eastern A. llioTra tivorsLahat de, dif rssxp 24aJulFe1on3OChip thmoe n f Tra tivorsSvr s,revents do eAr setoccun frcre of ArIntos onioo iduaof an Aru exam oi,neio eArnoditeashetsiinshad c tlowiSvr s try tydwos onr what beioxisass wacd t19d t"em>   <"13">me='>

Dify">* Ottomanhodir pritifhthey hat e,tpnb ai mahe d natolt wh fxcogicaChiolulaowiTo t e. oihas thedtmsticodukitice, an, wiAre of ArmChipe thmatol d no600e thos wsudlbnoxirha iantsiported mat wh alIstaiwhAre of Armng ftoma saaThias cdntsiiAsthpintrTo the BruerOd o,enteloe t Of o orta Frugglpnb ene, bty and Cht huans Ermioer, u, togaeshaians arpo be. toe, t ed"dite bents aboTo t mocun frs last paraneodto Ety and Chrsh ane">

An tyetomawhelo dolhed of s t wsd nd the. Wvuilr 23yahitd ee, bert tlowincbeeIt re Feaof an Arhg,n tn Armetyenbynitn tcribreolulaowiAre of Arm fnByzignium fcd nrelowiSeljukincb thesce, anceloine8sccoooereloanksgitime, togGoleatolhitimedr sciaext wh natioByzigniamonpp nt popmillioSeljuks gfvm protil iocunir esmof an ArChu 7tIntos onlowiByzigniamAshas shareash folltt1hesrod. llite ben esid;thy npp nt pThiaax s os onlowiByzigniamAshas It irssxp aowiAre of A chu 7t s,rmam d tocasuoerepocasth,lcateChiof thexhmpfedtml onrs ag>, nuing osetn ae aatiotatenax sstaiwhAre of Acardsuht husasslef f thetsincbdu thdtAsd tto linfffaied ysia, ronlyways.iAceres byrs ag>, nuhc ie casucat-edu e8sccmioerelowtheroe, fatiaeemhed a t os onAre of Arm rs hat nv i-ctnlim m the 1mpet so-tsincbe, t-tsiErmiostaiwhAre of Acuomafythe d 2345 lChiof thatovetsiSeljukiSl al Ms akshateereloankrhgmnatolt iAs7; til iocstaiwhAre of Achg,n tn AoMat ionu tEdefehn tcribe ftt ,OTrong>

Doiede y fnt>goncas f tan. "OTrong>

Adi 1oai, 19Hung i Chroied cupish o paranBogoo lrm018 (5)

* Ottomanho, 19Chip laccur. aran1hesrul iocuo pByzignium dately folF exheMes gd'arcas thescoation of IiChi1453g as eteaonce eieOopor , n,eptoman po wsc ano wecasomicifficnul tr o prhaoaottpposr aranaof an Asgae f onuteds hat nv i-ctnlime lrectnlim s: 500arepo, wince stitestaiwhvfoyurs. A ify">* Oruero, Os>* OBite(1300e-1326),iperswerearaowiAre of Armt me been eseeediatrs. A rs ag>, nuc. eadiArwed to Eastern Arict KutahyAtit tp; til eeedh natioByzigniamonpp nt popmillinuc. ead thehe covlyefatiase o,dat aole, an, wiify">* Ocap io wrs. A t tBursaOd o1326 i 19aracunirion of IiChi1461,osl anF exheMes g19 isua bya fy"> 4eme the ie lhee been esimed, wiaof an ArPa erl 7titeOore,e can blPa erl 7t Hovakime lrelinusulcefeoalipAsBaninshlter, that thousaAre of Armemigde eicnirion of IinatioIr Acu, wiCaucasus ooed to Efficneblrhl astern Aer, wiBalk Asga 19aranCted aaiey hbionly bosaoup"ey ols:ed cupishribu dbionly barangry thify">* Occb thhanshas e wer iAsetomanliAto aatruhec. eadusaAre of AulifestaiwhAre of Acardsuht hufficnhu 7t , u, ogi Adeteanrepohaoaoeteahip laarepo, wiogi Arish anrepohaoao emttrn frify">* Ottomani018 (5)

* Ottoman,ulideihed hat nmajan rs ag>, nugroup ri the wganizeted t19m beericd s a casucan bllowiatonlyrs ag>, nud 2345 staiunutedsfy"> 4eieniaexby F exheMes g19e been esimed, wiaof an ArPa erl 7titeOoation of Iiwries=iideert tlowiPa erl 7t fatiey hnplhelowirs ag>, nud 2345 o paranaof an A ribu datss thwromed tr. d 2345staiwhAre of Armaidaohwiks thrmy toootictnlim ribu dtlis utss has che to cwries e pocvi sads,rma A It r ortaety istos onfatiexhmpfish natioal thedrwerei"emiAof an Asganey hat sai-ctnlim mged by lydn, nudawer, wiclm mTTx (Zakat)ga 19aranTiaran, natiowos onr i-ctnlim m theexhmpfedstaiwhAre of Acm beerirs ag>, nud 2345rmetyenbynitn,Armo th gxceed Tra surdiomahei criompn f snitei018 (5)

* OsniteOora surdigfvm is. In ahe fal nes e assC Forcgegxceed Are of Acing osetn ae is onc theaexxunetlisstac ie casgae f onutxceed Are of AcPa erl 7titeOitnbyfstaiwsd Are of Acr were occs rs>Thefhef ande expierelo>Dorwere diteChit ento t eseRe world,tp; Zala bydthe orts e fal nes e Pashgnnerelo>D ande expriompn f Are of Acahu 7ti018 (5)

* Olaw alI ty and Chrethjil s tomyatreiey hGraek OrthodoxfatreiiAcereeted pn f Are of AcGragotn Anm beerstaiunutedsPauln e s , 19Yakub etiiArastern Atae f onutedsBogoo lr , 19Gypscasgd pn f Balk Asg the 1ucsso-asicre of Ar, rt23 follttdthe orts e dispu etiiArlet a te so onutxceed to ioey">TheousaAre of Armal thelhelitimedd pn f ttomani018 (5)

* Ocul tr i, 19.ayriomplifei, 19ttoman govrlttdt onannextgovrlrt tlowhuoarnetet wip laccur. arligi, 19ncbf as "ey fnd fras aa smo th ghhec. urcas, thinimed, wiatlrms at ", wiloyioem beer".eify">* OAre of Armbionmheextryanlyefealthyrbo keos w>e 7tinth,lcateChdundam oi,nemiwungeraaeemt tlowiks thaed arha tsit>ghOps 1968 tiiArttoman gov e erei"emiI pn f 19 ance urd,iatoln si500,rtldiey-niamoAre of Armalrare s n f t>ghhescttoman gov e rankr fnPTalastaiwrho thealdiey-ewogAre of Acm an aanss.iAceres byn f Mman aanriompFsrish FAffaied, Fal ne0,rTr werene Als Int, an hat Are of Armmw folmajan ncblrms a68 titxceed d heit govarcaseernetee, anagrhe d uan,uecasomicidevemopve d,lcateghhec. susstaiwrhoatss w theahirey-eh theAre of Acngo were h init apse vieteanree sl etetxceed P. lia govarfora de e and1826,litwereambse idsas ooleve Occbas -ged by r , 19ccbas s ooleve Ou, The Univpoglefeo1h,lcateforey- amonhat omahei criompt>ghOranke point.

* Oto t ese la,ncul tr i, 19musld,tp; du folmaeemtlac,ne omprs. A rankrwu thrhoobjil e omppra,tpn, 19s tl"etinmppriticetolTo t mae f onuAre of Armi Oto ted. lliors. A Are of Acphent folp nt nfatie been eseted pn f ify">* Ottomanld pn f 16 ance urdi018 (5)

* Oeys smeosiadm an ade expi is one werdt onahlitue occut is imp'sP19 intruheftt , natiohed a,o;tsm ,ad tto lini mahe d casoevened iice, ao cwd n fnd fr thi atheem beere. W, ao ctedsAre of Acm beeridispu etiarha o th ghhee sl expio paranpa erl 7t alene, bers "u exve"icre of Ar, tomyhas cod a,o;ion of Iinatioastern AtaateghheCted aaiaateghaterlat so-"oed to "eosi"m th <"icre of Ar, tomyonmhenatioIr AtaateghheCaucasusstaiwsd group oe aqt 1mpcaCh de ghing as fronhat txceed ify">* r, ash follttthinittoman gov e Pashgnnatolt wromonlycaatire ermandniAsthe,ne,lcatet tlowiks thaed a 1mpcaCha byabents aboify">* r9. acoe, t e"reIi exprmatoveething atbutl f-sps inn frsy i-on oes byify">* Otoeosogonm oreusibe Cha byd ercrinsulrhlUnivalene, bers group . lliograduee ariumpteo paran"oed to he " so-tsiaranapse vi goveo pr i-rs ag>, nuinhi athe aa pPu erl 7tr, asincrrutoexpi, 19misruerOe, ao caranAre of Acm beeraiaatego bloolyaIt est vety isncbflirn folptoman polgroup riething atos on, wiify">* r9. theoup"etego iAsthveamot tp;oistd aranAre of Ae aatiotnniungan fols fronhat i018 (5)

, nOsnieretdsOe, ao caranGragotn Anm beer so-maeemAre of Ae t thcy tocarants fris rnepom th Dttomanlduhat, duri19 ance urd,ionlyat, duri ry texpio pstheie8eem beerenatolt wm la ando carance urditaiwhAre of AcGragotn And 2345 laokedn, wiify">* 9ttoman govrlttiAsthveamoans p;oistd dt onccbe, exprribu dtliiify">* r9refraCh deaatioioorclss xp aowlgrou 1oatrt titifati* Ototto linp; impmatos onaidaosib aila aif, annatd frm beer ans ey hd frsnitei BloolyaIt est vdatelyrdrie, an, wiGragotn Anpa erl 7tsetyuhajn Anandntahtajn Angoorclss fa ntsitxardsuhtof snandnbo ese lfrcre of Aep; tie ort . La andshrinep>, nu t est vetss yanrlydtety is, wicre of AeCagharld aa perelo>Dnar depo pararomr Tcd,iato foltliiify">* r9fal cSied tiAsthveamoans 16,uncngertliiewogCagharld group ipr1888i018 (5)

* r9t ceyi-ctnlim m aoohi f knonlyann wasentsEurope ftt td fretomanl fnd fras aa smbionmhe gmajanip thmoe refugicetoln aterflth folaatiors ag>, nuhns ptoman pols:ed cupish.rUnilacnbye, an, wi, that thousaJewhrtomyf so-aatiooied cupish iprSphinidately fola, rre-cas thescipr1492,aJewhrf so-txceed ify">* Ottomanliation frragur. pogrohe foatos on, what theethjil edtd oCeblrhl hns ted sEurope hns Rus>n .eCagharld aans P; tie ortsulidee,tpnf so-txceed ify">* Ottoman,mng aqteAsth foltlii erei"el fnd fras aa sm, 19mw folmajan ncblrms a68 titxcify">* Oal thedr, 19ttoman gov e lifestMaeemttrn f ptoman polrefugit vdation frraac ixp aoannattelyricnhwi1848 d voi a68 tiitsEurope etss f so-aaniprotil iocunireed ify">* Ottomani018 (5)

* r9misruerarv i-ctnlim iitsged by "aateghheAre of Armi Op laccur. ar nuhanld sp; Z,o-natt>An ty,tae nt ssso-natmajan wed to Ehg,n tn Ar, natiohhheAre of ArmAsoghik"aateMat ionunirVol bean,mLamilacnn,mClauwerFarran,mPieran LotiDenmgur s It amoCaeaa iDePung hdMarshaateBronl, cacheeeraiSioltys u>s Witssd,nPtomans, bnoldriBrons la,nRoux,iGrthaser Edg. Gdetv bee Garniro, ToynbeecuBe nicdnLee,taiShawerPercn,mLee,ttai">*taiBombsci"aatenhat s wsc n fntomm , whyche to lhery hbiil bet so-aAs7; -to t es.easucs inbu da fewmttrn fmf018 (5)

,Ar.lTo t maaThiaauy totoety and Chscolulasib aeodtoiteOi ope thm, 19udnaerOd oei"n tymi"OTrong>

,Armn frrmy toniradm an a, t eenbynitns aategrh 1968 sst"OTrong>

Dhg,n tncrftc tlo t tliiTo t ese lt fomaaThicoe, iAsthaed ted pn f rs ag>, nuhns nul tr onfffaied ysin f oing s, whaccb thhesst"OTrong> 4eded by GBrons laf018 (5)

,Ar.l"OTrong>

  <"14">me='>

o-To t eseficu(1877 - 78)ga 19aranCite nt pttrB blinu(1878)g is oncaseere ellowificuirmmwr foltbu yanrly "ey fnd in thesexprae np; impmaitsEuroper I oce. In were, ho amomu A rbeioxigsibgck-nirRus>n Aeac ie casgChit ented ss lacnbyAlet en1820's-nirunwas dia, rormyiAr.lCzed itrRus>n et tlowiaed aaonubaginha byatmajan nce Iteam oiogi Arifolaup"eyacr isoCeblrhl As Cs.iArn frp; cefe o thrunha bymajan To t eseKhane ermisia, rpusteerficdnn frbocdanriompChal ga 19aranPaes=ic Ocerl. A tlowiks thaed ,rRus>n Ae Iteam oiamb In ae urh deedutsficdnonutedsCzedoohity tonirthinincblro s tify">* Otethen tyntsitxtterelowi n a 1lockednetomanlnireed Meds i deteaqta 19aran as ns6alipAsBahiosere m oiohe sett fnd inamb In a,rRus>n ohity tonircan bituinify">* Oetd ggvannatiow, ao cby stirh foltliiu exam o amb In ae ttrn f Ss aa 'sety andn Aeethjil s.iArp laccur. aratert, antomm fy"dh iete cardsxprOrthodoxfrs ag>, nuhao ag0,rthf Graekrma 19aranSlavsgd pn f Balk AsgaateghheAre of Ar. A tlowiks thaed lo t Rus>n Aeaudnaseaal,eo-lowifmansmttrn f GraekeRedonidepogaatestirheo-lowibaginha b aofnPTn-Slav tioi FSdib AtaateBulg i C,enhat srase oai erelo>DCaucasuseaatesh kedn,tinec depRus>n Ae sflugonm o th ghheCagharldosmttrn f Are of AcGragotn Annhu 7t ttrEchmiadziAcu,oatos onas A ify">* OGragotn ArmaidaCIDE?< gmotxam o attacs gov . llioRus>n Armua snt frCagharldos' jbei, nemttrn f ion of IiPa erl 7t nirthinilinusupshgnneredt onannextgovrlrt tCagharldosmNied nuAra laketohienbyfihereAnato"ey fn60,000eAre of Armi Osupshgnnttrn f Rus>n Aeareynaoannatty toIr Atd pn f Caucasuseipr1827 "1828eaats.iArn frp; cefe captuhat, as thttrIr A'setaucasuset isesoyolss.iAceres byn ateroing swiwrholowiAof an Aoo thed. llirxr w Rus>n Aep were"eyat aollowibocdanriompoed to Eastern A3, 1mb netee, anlowikupshgnnttrn f Cagharldos, eq Th snt fh fxcogtterelowi n sflugonm ety isAre of Armi On f ify">* Ottomani Rus>n Aep weshaiaiArion of Iifal cSiegy hd frPa erl 7t niradsnt frCagharldos' p> nirlirxda lhesrayanris lacnbyAle1844, fu t ph foltliil nt a'seab tied tiAflugonm ify">* OAre of Armi ORus>n 'seaavsadiArtlii thosSaoannattelyri. MosA ify">* OAre of Armt theetlatetsopncbeGovie, an, wi n osciprtliiSs aa 'sedom an8 titxcbii er>, nlteChflugonmo-natd irxRus>n Aep nian pro. lliodi 1oaabah ofmo-natd atertomygmmigde eicnirRus>n ow theaurh deo th go ctnlim rsfugit vdloolcnbyAlerelo>Dttomanlrunha byafiteaatiooied cupish iprRus>n etnoated to EEuroper llirx so-txcnep>, numi 19dispu eti. acumaeemttrn f Are of Acemigdenth,ltolt wromdesce denth,lunuappivsl anlifeiiprRus>n wscty tonirinturnettteed ify">* Ottomanliprtlii1880's-i 191890'si018 (5)

* Oty and Chs.nthoui 19i 19 dethl sao soheo-misoyol rhehc ie casSaoannccbe, eicmaeemAre of ArmlttP; tie ort tioi 19Cagharld tio wepil ie lh, rt23 folltteed ry texpio pn f Are of AcCagharld Chu 7taiArion of IiiArl830ga 19aranP; tie ort9Chu 7taiAr1847e Hwere, t wsd devemopve dooatreiey hdid c lseincribreltteed devemopve dio pn f "aof an ArQthese q",isey toooieuapsnonueipire expriompn f rems byit wabeGovie, aiprtliiGragotn Annhu 7t tos on, wiRus>n Armatreisaek follttow alidvortdgeyofniprtliiatonlyfit. 018 (5)

* Ottoman govrnweogr Zalbleequelirmy tooaaniaateethjil s inthrdlnt pompn fromr ,ns.iArn frp; cefe saek folltt ,ns.a 19rel tocfoltliicd s a casunirincitg osetholowi n s to polregur.tn ae ihi 1916ca talrare olowsiogod sr I sofa nonutedsAre of Armt thecaseto ht,narand as amaonutedsAre of AcCrdsuht huRegur.tn a,edranl ians, tedsPa erl 7titeOa 19 wacd t19d t"einatd frify">* Ottoman govropr29aed 7th1862i Ofrp laccur. It r or"etd frr w regur.tn aip th19aranAre of Accd unhatheca916cahiogooman govroe t Ofuncng ofn140 meed ass.iAceres byxplhe209chu 7t go natiohhheion of IiPa erl 7tate,osunger80inec r. ngo were h init w theaxcbiic ateo natiohhheion of Iiardsuht huffic40 meed as natiohhhegr Zanthsmillf Rem tmnP; claorkish ofn1856a so-thoui 19i 19 dethl axcbiing fn s toessso-i OAre of Armtos onireinturne s tAri=iideerfn s toess pompRus>n eiArn frks thethnld groupmillfin ncbcnheraonubg incaArtliiatonly Iteam o itr s toess pie8at t otrtliiattffil iolcaaniAre of Ar. Rus>n enweohity tonirthiniAre of Ac Pashgnnatolcan bitua bya 19reesrodcfoltliiify">* OetiteObivpogmems bynir ry to t "Gry toniAre of "eiAroed to Eastern A3,. (39)f, whyco th dthe orts elheng fntethen tynalene, bers Blgck-Sh i 19aranMeds i deteaqtt otrtliOAre of Armre, aidaruerartoleve Ontentthe ar anyhaed iprtliiatt>An tyi018 (5)

* -Rus>n Aeficu(1877 - 78)gaww aredeaof an Ardry mooaaniiA tpitlbncert, anRus>n Aehelp i 19ca916cRus>n Aeguidor"emiTrficdnn frtereompn f ficer, wicof an ArPa erl 7t oation of I,mNied nuVarjab an a,egy hiprtot one, anlowiRus>n AeCzedne, anlowihelp ttrn f Cagharldos ttrEchmiadziAcuas folRus>n enwtonirinturnettteed ify">* nutedsoed Eastern AArdi 1ointentthe byaRus>n Aed t"esr Ior an imoxiae and aftficer, wiPa erl 7t atovetsilowiRus>n Aecamp3,. (39)natd feraonuo hSaArUnep oto,ifor an imoxioutkiticion of I,mi 19iogaar s tohumaee, anlowiRus>n AeCrdsaa916,iGri 19Du alN(39ol*taiaokedn, ar al s tEed to Eastern AtbeOa dex oatirRus>n oi 19ie oen eseteonuoogautasom, nuAre of Ac tite,hvfoyuml onlideihed 16g>d loferbh folie oen eseteaaniBulg i C,ebu dtlar ifnd infatiey ht is impaiaateghiodi 1oaiog thesexpraidaosib ainturnprettteed ify">* n,uo hn Aed t"esmistics ry hbiie, adranl irtslcnhsnadsgaavsacfoltliiAre of Armt theiblroeen oai erelo>Dttoman gov e i 19idm an ade ee o wganizrkish a 19regur.tn ae ttrn fshegr Zanthsmillf Rus>n Armeg threttteed l nt a p nios o,ntos onfatiiAcorshgribreanuAracclf 16 ttrn f 'Tra tivorsSaArUnep oto.ntwereanutedsnagots tn ae t thegoorclsh a hSaArUnep oto,ing ftoma stliiAre of A omahe as iArn frRus>n Aeareynsh kednfdentn poSied tstiryit wabeGoviety is, wiify">* OAre of Ar,lurgcfoltlih fxcsh konirthini", wiks thaortvorsiA tpitlbnceraanitlihnbynitnD sflugonm ety istliiAre of Arm tEed to Eastern Atsy isae and aftRus>n Aed t"esmt thee, adranli018 (5)

* Ottomanaiaateghn was "Gry toniAre of "ettteed P, e* OGule tldlPate* OOcerl,ntowrholowd , whyoed lheeh ta aqtd frBrmanshOps sesoyolseiArPate*r I ointurneatol* OOfy">* Oag thve diaaniBrmanshOntente occuo pCypr n,etowrhaan0,rtsiteeen>D vetsi 1ucssol* yaRus>n Aeeh ta seiArEed to Eastern AriBr thinieg thretttly bdtAsd flugonm iArEurope fttlpser d fr7; Zi exproorsSaArUnep otoaiarrhtlcfoltliiCite nt pttrB blinuttteeirxe 1miAsBand as amorsit, dblibnde expr,rRus>n ofati 1mpet so-tsievacuf s al s tEed to Eastern Ate, anlowisey toexpio paranri,nercr pttrKhos wArda otrtldlBar mrie, an, wiify">* nueg th folltting osetei"inm tms"eiArlowised to Egr ZanthsntowrhoAre of Arm thedtca916cahioguarecssel fnd frfee odif an tynEuropea

n oitss yanrlydtnatiohhheCite nt pe, aentstitimedalrare s it, majan objil ie n,uontee, anpotteGraethmioereBulg i Crbh follef ca916cBrmanshOd flugonme I towrhaan09reneyrice, ananting ricviganiitsieffhgnneredec depncblro s tEed to Eastern A,iethin saek follttly baranAre of Armonuonmajan n Fru setto pdtAs7arldy. NowIn were, hoitifatirnsC F s iArloirxeffhgnnnatd frBrmansh, tomyitss hity tonir sflugonm entely baranAre of Armby stirh foltliiryu exam o amb In ae,eto was iArloirx wepil ,eiArn frsh 1oinfnd frnd the wrs i ReamoPin a,etomygseiArftc tknonlye, anoirxp; -cre of Aehumae,e"aof an tiArBrmanshO othsm htheyd cod aas7arldheetrkish athing aRus>n Aeogi Arish." Whetowr9ca916cRus>n AeaniBrmanshO sflugonmIn were, hoaranAre of Armbionmhepanlsuniridvornm iIteam oiamb In ae aA ify">* Oogi nspi018 (5)

* OCh tgrt hufthing aRus>n Aeogi Arishvo htliiCite nt pttrB blin.oluvie, an, w aeshmpfish ttrptt tiby Witlia E. Gladst amoaateghioLibndelseiArP880riBr tnshOpsrldy erficdnn frify">* nunhsnaddedrastn poSied t amotos onhity tonirprotil iBrmanshO sttoess pby bingk foliant frify">* Ottomanlaate ry tenolaa fnaoxismaateetitesucan blBrmanshO sflugonmeiArdtAs7 thho amoog . (39)aonutsib aAre of r I opursuitto pd irxpsrldyhoaranBr tnshOp nt pnweoaonugonouraudonfirinf-hnd19oed to Eastern Amonu"aof an ";nBr tnshO 1baur.tesmt the as eteiArre, d ,o heinfnd frenea tsigr Zalbeoashrtua casuaanincblf tha, an, w n ofI ty and Chrotnian pop;fftheru>Thet;epoP; tie ort9misoyol rcasoere trelo>Dted sfatisthe orts elheanting ri;ocateiArLoh ofl* OAhou -cre of AeFa fnard hdCrdswerenofati ta aonfir sflugonme world pp an8 eiArkupshgnnttrn irxr w ndeavsu5staiwhfiteolulRus>n oi 19Gry tiBr thiniua snAre of Armonuontooteatoltliiatonlyamb In ae aonur, haadequeimoxidocu seteo-natru>togh vcre of Aei 19 hat naan0 * Otethen tynalaan09, w Rus>n Armstirhetetlih cpr I noce s: 500 istigoorcltsib ahugnnnionly bosan irxdry mbosaaiGra toniAre of ca916cahioprotil occuo p, w Czed,"9, 19", w cre of Aease setseiAttereloi nt froEed to Eastern AeloiRus>n ." llw cre of Aewrs i Kapocan AArreIt ieteprouaoxiinilinuboorn"T wiAof an AeCtesirx ereRebir an, ar ", w redonidepo rhepogmemdsga 19ingomae occsmt the yricnirRus>n ." llw TTalnakfr wspateadHgmannikiiArdtAsieniauo p28aJude om1beetitetetlar "Towgaww arorclosaairedonidepo rheuomafy"ety istliiAre of Armi Oto ted aonutedsd as amorsRus>n Aestimian pop." llw cre of AePa erl 7t Han0 Eard kf AewroteOi olinuH>An tymorsAre of "Towgprotie ort9misoyol rcasori,ners attriArdirudey">Thet;nirvap>, nu7 thrmi Oto ted ustictenian prouftsaavsadorsthoui 19i 19stirhetetliiAre of Armttt1hemanlautasomheca916cBr tnshOp otil occstaiwhschoote lrt tlowhuie oen esetew theahdey"rnep>eoinfnd fiomed intr7 As." Aateghiocre of Aers ag>, nud 2345 Hdett V laab aewroteOtlar "'aiwhie oen es settoe pentie ort9cd s a casui OOfy">* Otethen tynaateghiiniprotil iocunatthoui 19i 19ghioUa aeStitesuistwe lrt tlowhuevents dsy anktnatioogicoin folsve Oghioas thted ms feefis rnepoghioWie ,ers ag>, nufeefis r,eiArsaek folccvi izrkish",egyorclonutttetite lrt tlow Cagharldos ttrEchmiadziA Kedork VraonuontootettrCzed itrRus>n et 19ght thiialerayatetliiAre of ArmorsAstern A. 018 (5)

TheousaAre of Airedonidepo rheuodca casuw theie oen eseteiArEed to Eastern Arilideihed Blgck-Cr isot 19Are of Aiuodca casuiArV Aei 19hed N exam o Guicd piArErzuru e Hwere, t wsd uodca casuhas t the sflugonmIndir pr, wiAre of Armi O, wiify">* Ottomanlstlate thedtd ope thm, 19pohaoao em, 19has nirinaIiardpcaCh s fthing aOfy">* Oadm an ade exp. W, aO, wipse igeyofnaed ,rtowrhaan0,rtlisstan19 hat ndt onAre of Aiuodca casua, ai O, wittomanli f i ereinhc ie em, 19dirudoxicng ric ande exprstaiwhAre of Aiu exam oiss ptowrhaan0rase oaerece , t wiatowganizrkishsioutkiticOfy">* Otethen ty,9e been esimed, wiHutheakfCrdswerenot tded vaOd o1887ei 19hed TTalnakfCrdswerenot tTiflgseiAr1890,opotteog . (39)reIt ietetsib at wiatbseld go c ted "libnde exp"tnatioOfy">* Oruernepoghiotethen t>eoinfnEed to Eastern Aei 19hed ify">* OAre of Ari018 (5)

an tynac ixprnepoghisd us thed t fostaethoat onutsib aua snonuonmethodtoe pentictenoltli s: 500 i 19winha bytbuiatccbf as "eyi O, wiHutheakftengr mstaiwhs laynaia de t9hethoaizcfoltliiify">* Ottoman gov,etouarcaslrms a6folltficdnelyroenoltli soessigeyofnaht t16g>d i 19wor folttficdndtAsardpcetiiri,Ch tgre exp. aiwhgooman govritnbyfnfatiey htsib at winplhem curnepogethoaistn lf ticrstaiwhHutheakinfaeteo-loi nniungan at wias thdh iha, nnepoghiocre of Aei 19To t eseinhi athe atomyatreit feraor folatoltlihgooman govrasuw f onutsireesrodiaateer foma 19 sfora 5 staogaes itrt fioi Fc thdcfolentsal s tghisd gethoaistn al s, tli s layn onutsi wganizema seylu pThibdethhiwries=i poSiededoteo-loiandforacfolal snepogethoaismstaiwhas thtashrtuaeohed a,o;ing oseteitlihged by Grebet ish aanin thdcfolentsfor an im objil ie nn onu. acuto ted aonuengaudoniAefic. " point.

,Armety istliibourudoirx ereglihgry ti>e 7tinth. A tlow eth,r. acuthisd meor pw theixhau F s, tliseinaorteo-loigethoaism,sae and aftts fris rnepo aftRus>n Ae wdonidepo rcasunrt tlow terealign=casunrd meor .l"OTrong>

Theousad voiteeffhgnsua, ai Oaiistrtihed rie, an, wiHutheasungk fol, wirt23e t9rs. A,uaateghi O, wiTTalnakAsattelyi i,a7 Aua bya 19 wganizcfoltliiateffhgnsuoutkitic, wiify">* Ottomanlalaan09n thdcfolnrdhlentsa, ai O, wib weretcasuorsghioSs aa 'seui 1i018 (5)

* OBankriArion of Iiipr1896, tli S6,unreSasuprd voiteipr1903, tli nt mpfedtse is>nu examuo pSs aa AbdulhamidaIIeipr1905,uaateghiGcd AaOd voiteipr1909.iAifr, wsd d voitrx ereriotsew thepreseeteo-natglihAre of Air donidepo rheuodca casuiArEurope hns A>e n p onutlihkitlifolesaAre of Armnatto tn,uontee, ann irxaortvorstenian proumee igeytowhuktirheteccbalf-heen>Dgmotxammety isty and Chro: 500astaiwhaisoyol rcasoonte 1baur. ngo were h init ere natd frPtt tsutsiastern Ae7 yatemajan rou>s iArspinascfolnrirxp; ian prouftsd frwed to Eo wer, tlue cathdcfolentstli the orsd frwed to Eott tsutsiturne world pp an8 eething actnlim mfficto tnutsithin d frnecefe rheuupshgnnerebingkliant frify">* Ottomani018 (5)

* nutirinal egirvioie thmioeretlue ger d fraan0

n AeCrbauruded by GiArBitlgseonteV A;uded by GM yawski,ersand,prei o1912: point.

, nuedu e8sccmibu ding t23eccbcnblrh aonoArspinascfolu exam oissrlf-as,ntos onf theamahx oatirtliiwal seorsmam d tocas,uonteiha7 thdorstndforacfol, windinlag>, nudu casutlwhaccbcnblrh aonoArs irh folty and Chrenmt hufthing actnlim staiwhd voitrxtrt tloorn7 thdiArmaeempr Zanthsnorsto ted duhat, 1895 onte1896tf theonly dane, aetiby aeemgry tipooma hufty istliiAre of A v beaadsgnoatbeonly bosactnlime nt fkAsothing atbutr I oftc tlofsanv beaadrsew theccbalf-heenyeri7te na 19pan09pohaoao, nut otrtliiatne,ghboalipRe8at , tli Are of Air dontAsanmhenatiohhreheonly s: point.

 

 

n AeCh toheatxam.l"OTrong>

* OCh to polfffaied." A as fronrsd firyara ded voitrxtrfrAre of Aiaethoaist9cd swerensihaThial.ayrip; ian tetetlar Europea* OBankriArion of IitrfrAre of Aiaethoaist9Are o Aksomisardswerearsuicidheam,pr titimedwa aeiArreaoaon popptoeiarriv c orsghihBr tnshOflth e Iteonpmalrsaeppto nut o tliwhbselsuaanitrfrAre of Air dontsewonuey ht oma haieyat onuittopp weroccuonitrfr1hemanlaaniinm tm;pie8at hoitifatisCdpcatglihd as amorsa je vi-effhgnnopptoeis lauorsd frAre of Air donidepo rheardswerensiieretliiAre of Aichu 7t,eiArccbjuActn aie, an, wiWie to EPtt tsuiereRus>n ,utsipr Zatic, wibselsutrebingkliant frify">* Ottomani018 (5)

* nueven. tl hat ndtitesueveniArkufrocircumon ocgr,eseoes byara def t"esmothing atbu rebetnutirinAn ter 1916mioereaanitrfras ths lausulceees byquickoxisir pre, d fewmttrn frAre of Aistnian prkupshgnetuonihelpetetlu rebetnuanitrfrr donidepo rheuodca fostHwere, aanitrfrp werioere world prsEuropehoetirhetenatgTu>shspinasbnatglihaisoyol rcasoontetrfrr donidepo rheuodca foetrfhnbynit,rre, d Ofy">* OrnAn te occuo p 1916cfatiautaorkichelheccbalf-hesnonuon"ported e"nepoty and Chs,osungertrfrto wat thousaslauy troerectnlims bh fol * nuaatiors,n tnfol 1916mibu datss nec deo-trfrr * OBank,uaateghiG nt mpfedtse is>nu examuo pSs aa AbdulhamidmiWungeras thttrtlisd w theixpet so-natiohhheify">* Ottomanhoitievents dow alsy isaanitrfh a tdec depaanudonpse shgnsoonte hat ndocu setsoontetirinturnetttOfy">* Otethen tyutirinAud a, wind ethoaistn al ie casaie, an, wico ande exponrsd firyEuropeaDacfodt hf018 (5(5)beenwibocdan="1" cetepis. ng="0" cetespa fo="0" (5)tbody (5)tr (5)td vp>

. 01td (5)td vp>

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* Ottomanle, aentstli portxe oaan0

* Otethen ty.iAias thatisoopponuduriRus>n Armloorno th duriCaucasus oliwatadotoeteonpsrldy arsRus>nfdcfoltliiAre of Armasuw f onue been esimedtriiatonly 1blro s th duriAre of AiGragotn Annhu 7t ihanriiattethen ty.iBy virtuheuorsd frPtomj of Lawmttr1836, tli ptt tssoeredu casuorsd frCagharldos ttrEtchmiadziA atreirs,nercrrdrieungerrirxapse vi govewonutsibi podeinatd frCzed. IAr1882eal sAre of Air wspateassoereschoote ihanri Rus>n Aettomanle theclosrdrioereihal903anri dtitemloorndid c y 1blro s feal st fraal nei cirs, tl"et ttrn frAre of AiChu 7taasuw f onuAre of Aie been es govssoereschoote. A tlowiks thaed Rus>n AeFan0 * Oadm an ade expinatsd n Are of Ais; ian pristreonte.rs i suiharece thosipW tre, n f ing xp,uRus>n Aeopp weroccuotrn frAre of Asewonusre, estaiwhAre of AEhg,n tn A V laaof AEincribsuihalinuH>An tymorsn frAre of AiMse setttlar "Ofy">* OAre of leaAsardpcetioxifrehein er ptrh 1968 s,ers ag>,p,ucul trhian19dinguigeyiqt 1mped ixpatirRus>n AeAre of lca916cahioCzedo." Edg. Gdetv bee .rs is,e"aiwhify">* OttomanleonuduriAre of As'i acatshelaandfthing aRus>n Aeopp werocc'"OTrong>

* Ottomanho, witethen tyutos on, wiRus>n Armhas pogmemdtrlttn f Are of Armasu* Oautasom, nusadiA tpitlbntstethen tyutonusummed lhuevZalblealene, bRus>n et 19 dethl e, aentsaeemve doccuotrn frAre of As,osungertrfrCzednrep iideettn f pentiss pomplow Cagharldos ttrEtchmiadziA acattlar "Rus>n eaonur rAre of Aip; impm." llw cre of Aewrs i B tn A touarcaseere ef018 (5)

n etthniraed faeteo-loi eshaiacre of Aeautasomh:eFan loirx wg xpi amomust9cdbalf-hnd frAre of Asewomyatreiaor folatolcre of Aeautasomhmasun tng fnt otraudnaseomplow Czednloi nt froEed to Eastern AeloiRus>n .l"OTrong>

  <"15">me='>

* OecstyeCh irtliiwandsh Nse Theol, 1914nopptoeikiticompGy"> 4em, 19Au,nera -eHutg rheothing atbu Eh tA i ptt tsseaAsarbalf-hesnonuongry tioashrtua yrnatglihAre of Aiu exam oiss .tLou,tpnNalbah irlEincribsutlar "llw cre of Aer donidepo rheardswerensiarbalf-hesnt o tliwhas thtashrtuaeohed a,o;baginuonged by Gupais follttalrare olowiatgod sseaAs. acuthihify">* Ottomanleonuinuondtitemofnfar", aate, unud erioimputsirnsC F tAiah to polfnt fk.stro(5)

* ud 2345smmet e, analiiDTalnakAsotrErzuru eiAraliihope ofngertenoltlih a tuupshgnneliiify">* uwandeffhgnn. acuiteonmhstaiwhDTalnakAspogmemdtrl o tifnd eiify">* nutA ideo-trfrwicer, wynshics dirtliiatdu hmasuloyaIiarucstye oeiAraliiOfy">* Oalt foe Hwere, t wygaaileo-loi thelianto;nrirxpogmemdIndir prsve Onlaan09, ismmeea6folltorn7 th, ahld intrDTalnakiCite nt pheldsotrErzuru eiArJude om14mhas alinasiedecidho-loily baranaseom aedwadnloica916ow alisged by "ant fklothing atbu Ofy">* OdtitestaiwhRus>n AeAre of nuje veo-trfrRus>n Aeareyni Eo wped nola "ant fklopptoeiify">* nuonusoopponuwadneonureIt ietstaiwhCagharldos ttrEchmiadziA eshaio-trfrRus>n Aeded by Gto theoeinfnd frCaucasus oVdetzof-DTalkofer, ar "ihareturneatolRus>n 'seaor foptoeiify">* nuloimw alinm tmsuaanitrfrAre of As oal st frRus>n AeAre of nushics uupshgnneliiRus>n Aewandeffhgnn., aentsarb 1968 ss" llw Cagharldos stheequtA lyutonurecethedta tTiflgsenatd frCzed,etommthiierntrl o t"llw ribnde expuotrn frAre of AsniArAstern Aeshics rt23e irtliie been es govs fea Oautasom, nuAre of stheie8eo-natioto t esesuzndeiieyiaate, o tliinuAre of , whybf inglizpreca916ce, analiipentic ixpaorsRus>n s" Ofx 1ursereliiRus>n Arx wgelheant Adetetttly baranAre of Armtoi nnexnEed to Eastern A,ebu dtlw Cagharldos wonutswhyts s folabentstlat.stro(5)

* Ottomanho, wiDTalnakiSodca y's ttahei c wgan Haniz aireIt ietf018 (5)

n ;ocatefthseatss istim tm noldoniA ieatbsttp> 8 ssl"OTrong>

* Ottomanf018 (5)

n Arxhitd cr isio-trfrbocdanreontetoeiify">* Oalt foxhitd s laetetttretry t, youmistics rnvoitire, dtowrhstaiwhify">* Oalt fox, unuslateb a7 ths alene, bewoifmans:comptoeiify">* Oalt foxidvornm othing atbu Rus>n Arho aatbu hat n oth,rcre of Aesswhii suihaOfy">* Odswhii suistics rt2e olowiatua su., aolowiatweaao s,iatom bah idiaan"et,nonteua l e, aatbu Rus>n Arsl"OTrong>

* Otethen tyuteanf018 (5)

n sl"OTrong>

* OParlia govsaaniV A, Papazy A, sooppturnhs entstsibi a rt23 folguer beacemy tandfthing atoeiify">* s,epuen esimed np; claorkish , o f018 (5)

d etseiAo, wiCaucasuseistics o wped olowhnbynitnaanibstt00mistohenonuodvornm ua suaanitrfrRus>n Aeare fox,oihelp lowhmcaptuheitrfrted pos1968 seiAo, wiri,nercr lwiwrholowiAof an Aoo therioereidvornm is yvcstern A,eje v foptoeicre of Aeua sualinasiee been esio-trfrhs"OTrong>

* Otethen tyuiAroed to Eastern A3,t wynswrhoerarbem,dvornmhyua su 1mposrd orsdoniA ieatify">* OanreRus>n AeAre of n,etomyswrhoje veo-natglihAre of Anudeselacnbytoeiify">* Oalt foxinreatove th dirtliiRus>n ArslMaeemttrn fy baas19d th tebah idiaan"et e, aaweaao sioerei s a csh . s on, wxihas aani thosSr, hastoc foliAeAre of ioeremisoyol rhechu 7t sga 19schoote,egyorclonutttr* Odupslhueepotsepottetoienting rn, wiatonlyatmsuontetsirenyhalih a ttoeiify">* Oalthmasuidiase oaeremeea , ismmortxe oRus>n Aeinvarocc' W, aiA fewmmonthsiae and aftficdbagrl,nn fy bAre of iguer beacean"et,n ande efoliAeclosru 1cr3 frkish ., aatbu Rus>n Ar,uw rwiksvaudoxiant fkefolto t esec casaitonlsuontev beaadsgiAo, wiEed ;9ported orcltiwiadiAhab thn su., aents>e 7y,osungero dtlw ks thaed wor folttedabetdgeytoeiify">* Oalth'nuwadneffhgnnnatreesrod folroadsuontebridgasairn Arntente occstaiwhasroc caseardswereo-natglihAre of AsdoniA ieataan"esmoc 1mpendcfoltliiRus>n Aeareynswrhoss nee, e t o tliwhRus>n Aeardsaerhet;alihnbynitne thec1mpet so-tsi., adran;alih natiohhhersy tcfolnatovssoeresterealih tttrthooguarredu casstaiwhaemoitssprsal stooimw yaRus>n Aeomahe as tomystoheteihanri Eed ro dtllsuted istimitlri ., aaoc 1unaseomplow rnvoitimed sroc caseardswereo-natgliy bAre of iguer beas,osun39)a rwiksvaudusve Onatgli incriie lh o isweee odthndicd pofnfartgliAeobstoheteihakufrooing .stro(5)

* Obocdanuihanri 1mpenduttrn f Rus>n Aeinvarhet;aonutedsd th atify">* OParlia gov rher o were h ininaaniErzuru ,iKene fOPaignrmaciyrl,ntoo nweo sshh tethfrr donidepo rhep> aAre o Garo.iA hat nd th atify">* Oparlia gov rirl,nHampedshh Boyaciyrl,n so-tlihAre of Asguer beaiaan"et eomyisvaud19To t esev beaadsgbeaiAo-tlihtiamsucan bltrfrrickp> a"Murad",iwries=i poSieocdancfolnro t"lo t esecungdn0 Eatss nstics bihkitlesnonut wygatom ahdh iha a ttoeiAre of Asu exam." Aa hat nd th atM TheottrParlia gov, Papazy A, so-tlihAre of Asguer beaiaan"et nro tisvaud19tlihoing ottrV A, Bitlgsioerectnh.stro(5)

n ArslLi the woan bltro tCzednN(39ol*taIIeere a teltgreh orsd antnutsitlihAre of AsR donidepo rheCrdswerenottrV A aaAo il 21,1915, "liantefolivsaani sustohi"esm irRus>n s" .aiwhAre of Asu wspateadGoclnak,epuen eseteihatlihUa aeStites oalsogpr uaoxirsand,preonaedy 24,1915rn o t" aca, 1,500rto tssremhin iArV A"ho, wirs,nxhitefolr, haslauy troer.stro(5)

n gpr Zalble242,000eruenet baaan0rl whwadneve Onlgrlaereaom ans o wped olowtify">* OAre of Anutoica916ow ald voitr",egitefolsd n lf-aottrolulglihRus>n A-cre of Aeatliarnm has y isr, hao wped noltsica916miamolowtify">* OwadneffhgnstUa916cahisru ircumon ocgr,e., aatbu Rus>n Arm,dvornorclaly is le,dhenatnamihatbu Eed ,e., aatbu Are of Asguer beashspinasorclf-a aaons deesruc ixpmsungero dtlw ks thaed ant fkefollowtify">* Oalt foxnatiohhhertho,e., aatbu Atliesmolsoginvarefollowtttomanlaly is le,dhenatnamnatioGarldc ltsiIrak,elowtify">* OdeciroccutsireshgnnAre of Anunatiohhhewadnoing oaonuaemodnde ioerenngnr lh ltg cme imng depompnbyfneef nspi018 (5)

* Ogooman govrustic amofal c effhgnneredec depged by "Are of Asuupshgnnaanitrfrwadneffhgn,usummov foptoeiPa erl 7t, so n Are of AiM ThenuttrParlia gov, oere hat ndeltgribsutouaemeea6foltowrholowd atreiaarnso-t o tdrastn imng deseshics bihaak haund eriAre of Anustoppeteslauy tro6folctnlim mfficcng rictsica916miamolowtwadneffhgnstW acuthireiaasun teZalbn hstiamoifnd eyaanmhenatiosenthto Eastern A3,ffictsiIrakoifnd eyaanmhenatiotlw nhgnhstaiwhify">* OCou cic orsMman aannut usuandroer f018 (5)

, nufal nei cilitue occug oa f onulowiatcnrheettrs as;ocateaanitrateroty istlimtrs anfolfugnhenihelp, lowtgooman govrnstics bungd l wagr,epr Zalbucul iv tonreonte lacs Anue, arseea, toote,eoerenquip govsl"OTrong>

D7 gua i 19fsituestItnshtics ry hbiiatogott A tbo , a dtlw ks thaed ,eoeutA nr iify">* Oalthmomp90,000e naieonuls thihatbu Eed ronuaernss amttrwee, e sstrtaads,lto tbo oghn was tlw remhin916cttrtliiwadnosuus4em, oghnenotdnfourDacl ish Ofy">* Oduhjil scttral srs ag>,psuevetefnuaernss amttrtlw ks tharb 1968 s tbo oafflrcrrdrtlw reshgnens. Hlulgragicoonteunfeefis u miA, lowrhaan0,raaniAre of Alu exam oissrutoubls thahm uarsubtes uumaeds beotrn frAre of Anudutnfollowtwadutsiwomethnfolng fnt otrtlw ks thanl 7tn polarb 1968 s tos onefflrcrrdral st frSs aa 's sthjil s.lTogseinulowpsru anbeaiAo-tlihfal rnnd the ri,nolacnbyhg,n tn polftc hcnatcl -d d>ordomottohnusufroonulowp"rs. Aagedocidheotrn frtagoviethece ury" tos onAre of Alo aan pristreontetethanigroup grheno r d>Thiasialign="rtlw ks thlf ticreotrnethanitodayutos onbn wasausulh l thanrutoutlw Ofy">* Ottomanldutnfollowtled rce uryi018 (5)  <"16">me='>

aAre of AiaosuutA nolricaaniglihrs. Aaaed iprtbfrBehg,n Aiingcripkishn trn frM ae (Per>n A)OttoehaniDirt nufatiotlw tho 521eB.C., "Iueef ths tlw Are of As." Ifehcy tori,n tr 1urse, loinuvieweeffil ie lh ccblrhdicnseonterispogZasdt alNoahlonteUredtuttow t fo.018 (5)

  <"17">me='>

* Ottomanloeretbu Pedloi As. Fatio220eunvyc tbu s lauorsd frfifthece uryeit aonu gSorteof Alo Zaonmmioerefatiotlwhaunvyc tbu seve thece uryeit bely irdrt19Byzanvyum. Fatiotbu seve thetoutlw tA hece ur foeit aonuccblrit srebatthfrArebo. Ithreturnhtefthinrt19Byzanvyuenruer iprtbfr tA hece urhufer, aal cSihoitianmhecan bltrfrdom ae8occuomptbu to tsss la foliprtbfreleve thece ury.018 (5)

n Apie8at looreAre of Ali ott gale Too tlowd dvents darba oseteranxishgnnompiA tpitlbntsfrkishnae sstwmiihatbfrstiteutA orslowrAre of Aihg,n tn A Kevork A>n Af018 (5)

* Ohg,n tn A Tacntus otomyiprbisnAnm oiu eribndewrote:t"T wiAof an Aoo7tinudrtbwinipos1968 aincrii istorR">nloeretbu Per>n Apttomanhowometed sruupshgnis uoamoi 19wometed srtbu hat ",e ,Aceres byn o tlowd ed o"Ans rhtlhrpe 500s"OTrong>

* rii a1915.018 (5)

, nlyubhacurn wasautoi np Ad batthfrByzanvyueii a1045, n fetmacu thosetholiso,e., aaGraetssr, folrn wasauihanir wp thmahiiAof an AoaeomyaadubhacureshgneistItnae lrfrhaan0rfal rntsi d thunro tlowrSeljuk to tssreesrodbleanxiAre of Aipa fcipaomah, rn daloamoiOdtitestaiisnalinasieaadubhacuroamobatthfrByzanvyues,eoereit aonui oftc tlof uodchlEfficecasomicofere o tloo trnss aedta n39)gry tlh aacnliv ths tlw suheequtA oto t esese the set.OCiteGmshg rheAre of Aihg,n tn Atnah topintrtbisnto t eseccb theseompAstern Antsihitd cong osetedatlii nribnde expufatiotlw uy isce ur foeompByzanvyueimisruer fficopp werocc' ThihAre of Aihg,n tn A Anoghik lous tand,sdt ath"Beonly bosaahiiAof an Ao' enmt hutowarreByzanvyumhon wyae lcod s tlw to t eseeblryeCh irastern A fficeve Ohelpetetlum." llw cre of Aehg,n tn A Maloi oeompEdefe lidew,tpnincribsutlar ahiiAof an Aoarejoiths aniccnlebderrdr worldlyutoacuthihto tssccb thheicbisncmah, Edefe (today's Urfa). 018 (5)

* rifficaatiohhheSafaZaloeompIr A, eomyaaduntentvetei oaf and afhByzanvyueoiaaduintirri;osungerYavuzpSefim loornCirldc nnatiohhheMamluko. MIAin rcasi, lowrhaan0,rrireali Ofy">* Oto tssccb thhn rDntenth oe)exn acfolAre of Aldtiten rDte fcipaomay. IArre, ya psi, lowtpnAre of Armhas po d>, nlyubhacuccb thheicbatpe 500suthat na otrtlw to ts.018 (5)

  <"18">>e='>

* akioereMarmara,bewoi shgnsocluherinad d Sh eslhu(Sisli)ioereTaksim,eoereus4emhealtanesbeen es govsnfeoa f onunumer, nurs ag>,usuaauerriiccnustttupitoeuupshgnneliserhc ie cas.strong>

,psslMaeemttrn fmoaintpr soehaue >e 7 otvsnfeoa f onurnascfolmeed atlorslowragnsoontepr fweroccoe TowtAre of Armompto twd aintpr uretonbunto t esecmanze soont,eouy is., aa elnohat nto ts,edeepcat wegovslowrliie fbentsabfiatarucstyhspinasyiqttbfiatp> abdlentkiticAre of Alu exam oisso. Ihap laccur. towd ebl thns tlw tethod itr nt fkAsnathveteentsbatthfswtgroup o Oto t esedipl">*tr,ecmanze s;ocateah toe,nt nrn wasentstli wh an.strong>

*traslauy troerebatAre of Altethod itsga 19tirncn91mqttbfserhc e doneyiqttbftp> aorslowrAre of Alpe 500s IhaFebru rhe1982dtlw Pa erl 7t vigot, nlyudeniidetlw cd the podeinatd frCou cic orsEurope nro tto twd isuopp werofolitenmifodt iit,rdtitofol"T wiAof an Aooompto twd aintto t esecmanze shon wya theliAlpe thmiprto twdhon wyaprf tichiabfiatrs ag>,penae lh oereb Aefit frtiohhhenae domoompbe arf." FotelynfollowtAre of Altethod iteesoesoyfrkishnompto t eseCobaur-ded by GKemhlEask A9iprLosnAnge00sutn 28cJanu rh, om82ho, wiAof an A Pa erl 7t dtitedl"T wito t eseAre of Ar,rri alielnohat nto t esecmanze sholthonhs etrtbisn., aagry tis thaw", aateapsea so-nani"ielnAof an Aoo th folentkiticto twd torr ieiupiothing atoeieiilltgrlial ie casdfereuucdanr." lo t eseAre of Aratoehnbynitnlous putu, wi ar tirtlw cd the orslowrAre of Alp aan pristri018 (5)  <"19">>e='WHAT IS ng PICTURE FROMong STANDPOINT OF UNaTREATY ON GENOCIDE? eoCIDE?

folbirthsie, aiprtbfigroupi n fan"iblhuthensfethefollowtcungdn0 Eomponfigroupiiht raa hat ni ott916ct tp lac cSie n eomcSieerhdicitofol

exam o,Oethhtoflair,usugroupe Towtgedocidheimpliie fcnseonteac ixpoeca916caip naereStitenpsrldy.strong>

* Oruer sstwt nunro tlowOOfy">* rihas ped tie8es e l "intsyEuropelielnlowOaod upitoeVienna,e ,Alrit srelowOaho00tttrn f NtrtseAftn hnnced ro 19thwiee nr iMiddlu Eed rnanioiteaiod fatio200itoe400- thosstW n39)frkishnmayubh ksireamyaaThibhacuext nonfe8es dutnfolloisnteaiod? IArieerhutoacuthihsh rirepo daileo-i Eastern Amicae dnusufroonuSyeracho, wiolreesety and Chudenom ae8occ, aateYezid l nro tidola er ns tlw fman fn19 os tlwiatonlynae reihseontechu 7t sge thebung tlon wasentsastern Anihatbfr1800ssreep l nrs a t tloo titifatifthing atoeirs ag>,p"rmccdsaer govoe Anuaem nt alttra t ,ponfittrn f br hat srcf Sokit u Mehmet Pash , aarOfy">* OGdetdeViziso,e.atifpse vieleesrn f Pa erl 7t cf Maked jwrSerb ChuChu 7taans rts tlw r d>T opofrSerb Chup>exam opep rt stWw fmnteexsi500e ttrgedocidheihatbfrerhuompiAteasecv rirle.a srcf Europe, ihatbfrpe 500iwbha dinguigesge thefan"iblhu7tinud19(HmntuseontePeshtus),niArAftn utoarl nrs dinguigeyoerers ag>,pee theee nr lh olaaneleeno-i ESenth A>e n utoahatbfrEuropea

D-a aaons Exile,niArsun39)exsi500e aintgite OotrolulglihBalk A9ons Caucasf Alpe 500rihas f so-tsitlwrOfy">* Oruer t ravoirerea a.iA thesexptrs asetonbunaskso-tsitlaterocclyat, duriify">* Oadm an ade expiotroitefolperpetie8so-gedocidh:tW hudvenduriJewe ons MoslehnolthThiSpwihaontePtrtugrliiha1469, eohudvenTok lh Iman fn19 isnentourigeylthThiHutg rheons stekir duge ihatbfrOfy">* Ottomanliha1680, RacozyaFen0 Ean19 isn ,AfidaA irii a1711Ean19LajosnKosnth an19 isnewoial wat tnossodch irii a1849, aatetoarl os tlw Swed eseKnfouChar00e ans tlw r mhin916cttr isnalthmtlw ks th thoho, wiPtomesePe fceuCharn tskati a1841Ean191856ho, wiRus>n Aeded by GVdetge0 ., aa isnalthmttr135.000ei a1917Ean19eve OTr hskatsity tosafeth atotltfe? D,p"t haaterocclyat, to twd otroitefolccdswereo-so- poSeo-gedocidheiha1915rknweonro tlowOPtomesean19Gy"> 4iJewe has f so-tsito twd ihatbfrcrib "30s?tW h,ponlhuof and20 orr25- thoseoe and af-so- poSeo-gedocidh, lowtpnpe 500ipo fethe19To teh atotstekofol

4ua t trare has faueretlw safeth iprto twdutoarl nrsxihas aSei.eTowtlo t eses: 500mireep l nrsi nrim aeaeor ,hsh rns tlwidnfood w, aatbu e,nicrecethedtw, aentso stohrkishsailolhumeossteasec tpdri onriiatarucstnesstaiisnisntlw clthhasla l nro tmayubh kstwmiatifAiexsi500it raelnohat e orslowrlo t eseae8occ, Ofy">* rians tlw Re world orsto twdi018 (5)

  <"20">>e='>oCIDE?

ihaicnutshell" ksirealw aotelynfof018 (5)

4ip wertraeshrtbueSworlmwOPtgnnaanitrfrrsn oftoccuihainx nt mtomtirsh detlowOexn acfol n916ci 19tirsec dep sbyfnfAiecasomicob Aefit ghn was tlw Bthlin-Baghdaduiailroad. 018 (5)

e n lychu 7t sgadep n Engomesean19lowOAre of Araaintgradthelhel i foltlwiatonlydinguigee Taater.hs dectainttlwy bd foe arf bra 1mhytonbunblgck-sheephorslowr eadstItnae aanitrfsfrrsasccs nro tsunas9lowOAre of Ara th foliprto twdmirectaintourDingrenseothing atoeieieffhgns,ubeonly bacuihalign"e irmccdswereo-tirtlw ep rt horsp>exam opfto"esmbntru aarenot nubatA h ?rk. Atlbd snisnAns rhtaadionabcocrrdrabroad,niAceres byn e ASALA,9PKKtan19Ko7tirf A"ssrectaie occseWd,eosntlw cmanze soorsto twd,ube are nro tacuihalign"e irmperpetie8so-at pilTowOAre of Arashtics knweobent alt otrb efolsc phgo*traifnd eyaadep ntitliggovredough. 018 (5)

ccuihalowOSurp BadArakors isuo were etebheHayrDSah d Aphgaf018 (5)

cce ttrBaptn aeYahya (Surp Hov naes Migirdic)rans Rab HisuseihalowOBiorp:eRe ent, beonly bGod"sno alm iseneari018 (5)

aueueos.OSurp Agoprsahs nro tloater.hs do nwtiloninohat e mayunwtiloninGodriacuihZaroimpuep rt stTaaternro t ,Asi916crs ag>,us,rringuioia tnr,prtans ethhtofltgroup seTowts: 500eshtics bihaimputirdisp dalowOv gnu0ittrpungrnghn pn uep rt horshelpseTowts: 500e.hs dveteihalowOMarmararthothqu de olowtuumaeds be dvivonrew, aentsho nriaintaelnourDbr hat srihalowOGod. Atlbbe are rrashtics gitealowOhelped eyaaintc paimputistItnae in91e19a sihalmyinmhintaeoomptoakufrograre rtans pwihi018 (5)

exhenueuahayoumwortsoamois goodeas orrbent alt otrtro tompy1urine,ghbourstBututu nna s a heschooteOaaThinonf.iOurDschooteOeduoftrie, d c,AscitAt>aue lo t esecmanze soonteacl wiAtltliiow, aatbu Are of Aidinguigeyoereoma by tra a tntbu bselcatitenseomp, wity and Churs ag>,pi018 (5)

efrkishnaatioourDschooteeisea wide rmoie8cxptomptu nftitSittt916seTowtby alofedivto"eshowomethnfolunhthos etruh yc rece Sihoraterrapidlhuipra wiled rdecadhstOurDs: 500emathvetew, aentsms thlix huperce stWw aaThimandupungrnghn pnitsgaty isure.hs pr Zaticme rm oiuupshgnna tnsgekioeptutrn daatiotlw bliAo-heleyeCh irsun39)tu nna s a hee hheistOu , wi hat n oth,nhat a arwOwee, heowhs eidpcatsaluloffua tnremhintaeoomptoatowy bseoblehnmibu dieisic lynxomphumdru eifnd eyaadepnwtisy t1dra tlowOhnasy oimps orrse, bipra wipn trasetak hi018 (5)

,psdibatlwoiomp, wipo it00sutfeJesus oSwiAtlThaeeusea tnSaiAtlBhotholomeusstIn 301 AD, lowOAre of AiKnfodomahcy toriethwity and Ch heonulowioraheiatere ag>,pna tnlowiEchmiadziAw Pa erl 7te8e,e ,Asi9161dranulowiA 7tb esopeaanitrfrAre of AratonufauereistWa slatecnlebderr i o2001stli 1700ttaana e rr rheompthinueve stFugnhenmg f, thfrAre of Asudissodch ifoltliinbynitnomp, wiJerusaleh9Pa erl 7te8esh Aeen ese19a stheie8erAre of Alonf.strong>

* .strong>

* Ore e 7 otvna tn lacs Aina s a he.hs weanltstoi voyniieshr* Ottomanlwaslnshsht o tccblinu r aclI?01CIDE?

* Ottoman.iSd n surwOeve Oristurbd19batthfrplca916ca tn7toman polunrhesni olowrEed to Ep lanomptbuittomanhoa tneeanlre thesefollowtreh Aeen esmgovrompsec di hstOulhuo mifodEp laholowOTash akiaately at,esurwOoe andin tpitlbncer strong>

* Ottomanlaadus laso-a tnnumer, nuarucstnes)teond th tptbuindin tpitlbncer Anreomp 1ursehohi thptt t nomptbuiWed ,eaoorn7 laui othinu7teose Duputirrsasccs ri althinholowOTo t es-Are of Airncriiccnuearl aarnm19Ch irChuinsec dep tmospow astaius olowtdecae eshrrsn oftoccu.anurectaind,e.hn39) so-tsi de tsm poSeicanu"lowtbigedised to"9i olowthg,n thEomplowtAre of Are strong>

,prt thedttogethe ca916ctbfrks throompofeaApttomanhoaanimg fnt otr600- thosstTiisnisnacfacr-tirbeicelebderrde strong>

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