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What does "Genocide"Mean?

This term refers to a well defined crime, the definition of which has been given in an international convention made after the Second World War: the "Convention of Prevention and Repression of Crime of Genocide", approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations in its resolution of December 9, 1948 and which went into effect on January 11, 1951, convention Turkey has signed and ratified this agreement.

In the convention the definition of the crime of genocide consists of three elements: for one thing, there has to be a national, ethnic, racial or religious group. Then, this group has to be subjected to certain acts listed in the convention: the "murder of the members of the group, and forced transfer of the children of one group into another group and subjecting the members of a group to conditions which -will eventually bring about their physical destruction". But the third element is the most important: there has to be "an intention of destroying", in part or as a whole the said group. This key-description helps to differentiate between genocide and other forms of homicide, which are the consequences of other motives such as in the case of wars, uprisings etc. Homicide becomes genocide when the latent or apparent intention of physical destruction is directed at members of any national, ethnic, racial or religious groups simply because they happen to be members of that group. The concept of numbers only becomes significant when it can be taken as a sign of such an intention against the group. That is why, as Sartre said in speaking of genocide on the occasion of the Russell Tribunal on the Vietnam War, that one must study the facts objectively in order to prove if this intention exists, even in an implicit manner.

(23) Prof. SOYSAL, Mumtaz, The Orly Trial, 19 February - 2 March 1985, Statement and Evidence Presented at the Trial,

Ankara University, Faculty of Political Sciences, 1985


APRIL 24, 1915

The Ottoman government, against Armenian revolts starting from 1890's and Armenian massacres which resulted with murders of tens of thousands of Turks, informed high members of Armenian congregation and the Armenian deputies that "Government will take necessary measures, if the Armenians continue to stab back the Ottoman State and to kill Turks". The Ottoman government's efforts to stop the events could be clarified with documents.

However, it became a necessity to secure the behind lines as the army was in war more than one fronts, the events did not stop on the contrary they increased. The Armenian attacks on innocent and defenseless Turkish women and children became a vital problem.

Under these circumstances, on April 24, 1915 Armenian Committees were closed by the Ottoman Government and 2345 leaders of these committees were arrested due to their antigovernmental activities. April 24, which is commemorated annually as "Anniversary of Armenian so-called Genocide" by Armenians abroad is this date when 2345 revolutionary committee members were arrested and this day is irrelevant with the Relocation Implementation.

However, Armenian revolutionary committee members always used this a propaganda rule by distorting and exaggerating the facts. As a matter of fact, Ecmiyazin Catholicos Kevork sent a telegraph to the President of USA, stating:

"Dear President, we have been informed that in Turkish Armenia, massacres began and the lives of the Armenians are in danger. At this delicate moment, I address to the noble feelings of Excellency and the great American Nation and in the name of humanity and Christianity, I invite you to interfere Turkey by your Great Republic's diplomatic representatives and protect my people who were left to fanatic violence of the Turks.

Kevork, Archbishop and Catholicos of all Armenians."

Russian Ambassador for Washington's contacts with the US government followed Kevork's telegraphs. Thus, 24 April, the day, which the Armenian committee members were arrested for their illegal activities was begun to be referred as "the day of so-called Armenian genocide by Turks".



The Arabic originated word "tehcir" means "emigration / immigration", it definitely not means "deportation" or "exile". Hence the law commonly known as the "Tehcir Law" is the same as "Temporary Law On The Military Measures To Be Taken For Those Who Resist The Governmental Acts And Supplementation"s." The word used to explain the implementation in line with this law is "tenkil" in the Ottoman language and means "transport- not the equivalent of "deportation", "exile" or "proscription" in Latin originated languages.

The relocation, which was started with the orders of Talaat Pasha, and approved by the Government and the Parliament as a measure against the Armenian riots and massacres, which had arisen in a number of places in the Country " pre " dominantly in Van province, was only implemented only in the regions in which such riots and massacres affected the security of the fronts directly. The first area was Erzurum, Van and Bitlis Vicinities which formed the rear part of the Caucasian " Iran Front; and the second was Mersin " Iskenderun Region which formed the rear part of the Sina Front. In both of these regions, Armenians had collaborated with the enemy and involved in activities to facilitate the enemy"s invasion.

Later, the scope of the immigration was widened in order to include the Armenians in the other provinces, who rioted, collaborated with the enemy and screened the activities of Armenian Gangs. Although the Catholic and Protestant Armenians were excluded from immigration at the beginning, later those whose harmful activities were observed, were also relocated.

Since 1915, numerous papers, reports, books, etc. were written and published about the immigration implementation. The Armenians, by using false documents have succeeded to deceit the World for a long time. The rumor about Armenian holocaust (!) which expressed at first as three hundred thousand and later increased to three million has no basis at all. In fact, although English and French authorities have extensively studied the Ottoman archives during their occupation in Istanbul have failed to find even a single document hinting about such holocaust.

Had the Ottoman State intended to make genocide on Armenians; could not they realize such an act at the places where the Armenians live? Why would it be necessary "to immigrate" them for such an intention? Why did they undertake the significant fiscal and material costs of their security, safety, health and food of the immigrating Armenians? During this immigration and re-settlement process which lasted approximately 1,5 year from May 1915 until October 1916, why would the central and local administrations take measures to ensure the lives and properties of Armenians in spite of the difficult war circumstances? In addition, would it be necessary to accept great administrative, military and financial burden "as if opening a new front- to protect and secure these people?

The answers to these questions shall be sufficient to understand the real intention of the Ottoman State. Also there is no logical explanation that why the Ottoman State suddenly changed its policy towards a community which had always been called as "millet-i sadika" (loyal people) due to their being really faithful to the Government. Hence the party whose attitude had changed was not the Ottoman Government, but the Armenians who were deceived by the independence promises of Russia and the Entente States.

In conclusion, it can be said that the Armenian Immigration which was a necessary measure to ensure the State Security and Safety is among one of the most successful transportation and re-settlement processes; and has no intention whatsoever to annihilate Armenians.



The Armenian committee members always distort and exaggerate the facts about Armenian population before and after the Relocation Implementation. They try to create a basis for their false claims by using war records, official records, church statistics and, reports of foreign missionaries. Some of numbers that is given about the Armenian population in the Ottoman territories are sometimes exceed to the total Armenian population of the Diaspora.

Armenian Population before the Relocation:

There are many different claims about Armenian population in the Ottoman territories; some figures are as follow:

1.British Annual Register 1917 1.056.000 (1)

2.Patriarch Ormanyan 1.579.000 (2)

3.The Armenian historian Kevork Aslan 1.800.000 (3) (In "Armenia and Armenians", Aslan states the Armenian population in Anatolia 920.000, in Clicia (Adana, Sis, Maras) 180.000, in the other Ottoman territories 700.000, total 1.800.000)

4.German Priest Johannes Lepsius 1.600.000 (4)

5.Cuinet 1.045.018 (5)

6.The French Yellow Book1.475.011 (6)

7.The Armenian historian Basmajian2.280.000 (7)

8.Patriarch Nerses Varjabedyan1.150.000 (8)

Official Ottoman census statistics are as follows:

The Ottoman Directory of Statistics was founded in 1892 The first director of the branch was Nuri Bey. Between 1892-1897 a Jewish Ottoman, Fethi Franco was appointed for the duty. From 1897 until 1903, an Armenian director was in charge, called Migirdic Shabanyan. Later, Mr. Robert an American was appointed (1903-1908). Between, 1908-1914 Mehmet Behic was the general director. (9)

As it is seen, in a very chaotic period when the Ottoman government was facing with the Armenian Issue on the international arena, the Ottoman Statistics were under the control of foreigners. At this point, the Ottoman statistics should be considered as the most objective documents about the Armenian population living in Ottoman territories.

* Ottoman census statistics for 1893 1.001.465

* Ottoman census statistics for 1906 1.120.748

* Ottoman census statistics for 1914 1.221.850 (10)

An evaluation of the three sources clarifies that, during the First World War, the Armenian population in the Ottoman territories was approximately 1.250.000.

The numbers of the Armenians, subjected to relocation was controlled from their departure until their arrival, between June 9, 1915 and February 8, 1916. The figures below are taken from pertinent Ottoman documents (11):

Adana (2)



Ankara (Central)(3)










































Karahisari sahib(16)


2nd 222
























































Armenian propagandists claim that as many as 1,5 million Armenians died as the result of so-called "genocide". Like the rest of their claims, this also is imaginary, with the number claimed being increased over years. At first, immediately following the war the Armenians claimed that as many as 600,000 had been killed. Later they raised it to 800,000 and now they talk about 1,5 million and tomorrow they may talk even about three million. The 1918 edition of Encyclopedia Britannica said that 600,000 Armenians had been killed; in its 1968 edition this was raised to 1,5 million.

How many Armenians did die? It is impossible to determine the number exactly, since no complete death records were kept during those years. The only basis on which even an estimate can be made is the actual Armenian population in the Ottoman Empire at the time. Even here figures vary widely, with the Armenians claiming far more than other sources:

Claimed Armenian Population

1.British Annual Register 19171.056.000 (1)

2.Patriarch Ormanyan 1.579.000 (2)

3.The Armenian
historian Kevork Aslan 1.800,000 (3)

(In "Armenia and Armenians", Aslan states the Armenian population in Anatolia 920.000, in Clicia (Adana, Sis, Maras) 180.000, in the other Ottoman territories 700.000, total 1.800.000)

4.German Priest Johannes Lepsius1.600.000 (4)

5.Cuinet 1.045.018 (5)

6.The French Yellow Book 1.475.011 (6)

7.The Armenian historian Basmajian 2.280.000 (7)

8.Patriarch Nerses Varjabedyan1.150.000 (8)

Official Ottoman census statistics are as follows:

The Ottoman Directory of Statistics was founded in 1892. The first director of the branch was Nuri Bey. Between 1892-1897 a Jewish Ottoman, Fethi Franco was appointed for the duty. From 1897 until 1903, an Armenian director was in charge, called Migirdic Shabanyan. Later, Mr. Robert an American was appointed (1903-1908). Between, 1908-1914 Mehmet Behic was the general director. (9)

As it is seen, in a very chaotic period when the Ottoman government was facing with the Armenian Issue on the international arena, the Ottoman Statistics were under the control of foreigners. At this point, the Ottoman statistics should be considered as the most objective documents about the Armenian population living in Ottoman territories.

* Ottoman census statistics for 1893 1.001.465

* Ottoman census statistics for 1906 1.120.748

* Ottoman census statistics for 1914 1.221.850 (10)

An evaluation of the three sources clarifies that, during the First World War, the Armenian population in the Ottoman territories was approximately 1.250.000.

The Armenian population subjected to relocation was 438.758 and 382.148 of these safely reached their new destinations. (11) The number of casualties had occurred as follows: 500 people on the road between Erzurum and Erzincan; 2000 in Meskene, between Urfa and Aleppo and 2000 others on the outskirts of Mardin were massacred in attacks launched by bandits or nomadic Arabs. Another 5000 people were killed in attacks on convoys passing through Dersim. (12) It was understood from these documents that many people had also fallen victim to hunger while on the road. (13) Apart from these, some 25-30 thousand people had lost their lives when struck by fatal diseases such as typhoid and dysentery. (14) In all, an estimated 40 thousand casualties had been registered during relocation.

The remaining 10-16 thousand people were made at stay in provinces they had reached, when the implementation of relocation was brought to an end. For instance, on April 26, 1916, orders were given to provide the return to and the settlement in the province of Konya of those Armenians setting out form the province to new destinations. (15) On the other hand, many other Armenians are believed to have fled to either Russia or to Western countries, including the Unites States.

As a matter of fact, according to the pertinent documents, 50.000 of the Armenian soldiers serving in the Ottoman Army joined the Russian forces, and some other 50.000 Armenian soldiers went to America to be trained in the US Army to fight against the Turkish Army. In fact, the letter of an Armenian called Murad Muradyan- who was an advocate in Elazig later immigrated to America " shows such information. (16) In the concerned letter, Muradyan mentions that some Armenians were escaped to Russia and America and later 50.000 of those trained soldiers went to Caucassia. As it can be understood from all the concerned documents, many of Armenian subjects of the Ottoman State were scattered through various countries especially to U.S.A. and Russia, before and during the war. For example, Artin Hotomyan who was a tradesman in America sent a letter to the Chieftain of Security on January 19, 1915 and stated that thousands of Armenians migrated to U.S.A. and they were facing with hunger and hardships. (17)

Halacoglu, Prof. Dr. Yusuf-; Ermeni Tehcirine Dair Gercekler (1915), TTK Press, Ankara 2001.


1)British Annual Record for 1917

2)Uras, Esat, Tarihte Ermeniler ve Ermeni Meselesi, Istanbul, 1987

3)Aslan, Kevork, Ermenistan ve Ermeniler, Istanbul, 1914.

4)Uras, Esat, a.g.e.

5)Uras, Esat, a.g.e.

6)1893-1897 Ermeni Isleri, Paris, 1897 Uras, Esat, a.g.e.

7)Uras, Esat, a.g.e.

8)Uras, Esat, a.g.e.

9)Mazici, Nursen, Belgelerle Uluslar arasi Rekabette Ermeni Sorunu, Istanbul 1987.

10) see Karpat, Kemal, H. Ottoman Population 1830-1914 Demographic and Social Characteristic, The University Of Winsconcin Press, 1985 London.

11) Some figures can be slightly change.

12) Coded telegraphs from governors of Trabzon, Erzurum, Sivas, Diyarbakir, Elazig, Bitlis Maras, Canik, June 26, 1915 (code, number. 54-A/112). Telegraphs from governors of Eregli and Musul (June, 8 1915 coded telegraph sent to Konya province, code, numberr.57/337; Zor province February 3, 1916, code, number.60/219).

13) code, number.57/110.

14) see DH. EUM. 2. branch, numberr.68/81; see. code., number. 57/51.

15) code, number. 63/119.

16) DH. EUM. 2. Sube, nr.2F/14.

17) Bkz. DH. EUM. 2. Sube, nr.2F/94.



The Ottoman Empire indicated its intent, by verbal notes addressed on 26th March 1916, to receive two jurists from each of Denmark, Norway, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland as countries not involved in the World War I. This initiative, of which the documents are reproduced in the last part of this document, was blocked by an intervention from the United Kingdom and as a result the formation of the committee of jurists and the investigation of the subject were blocked (1).

This move is an indication of the fact that there was nothing against the international law in the acts and deeds of the Ottoman Empire and an expression of self-confidence. In fact, the prevention of this investigation seems to be motivated by the wish to conceal the actual criminals and descriptions. Had this committee been established, the arrows of accusation now aimed to Turkey would hit the real targets and the insubstantial claims would be burried.

The initiatives launched by the Ottoman State did not come to an end with this move as the Sublime Port requested, by its cable dated 7th March 1920(2), the Allied Powers and Admiral Bristol to inquire into the matter, to elucidate the facts and to inform the Turkish and world public opinions of the outcome. This cable was a request "for an immediate in situ examination by an international committee of the purported massacre of Armenians and the acquittal of the Turkish nation from the propaganda with malice aforethought". This plea was published also in all the dailies as an open letter. Similarly, a group of foreign reporters, led by Ahmet Refik, was dispatched to Eastern Anatolia for an in-depth survey(3).

Would a State that had committed a crime against humanity risk the consequences of such initiatives? This example and several others to be described later will reveal beyond any shade of doubt how far the injustice made to the Turkish nation and history and how these indecent these insinuations were from a humane viewpoint.



Armenian propaganda claiming that so-called genocide was an Ottoman government policy requires proof that such a decision was in fact made. For this purpose the Armenians produced a number of telegrams attributed to Talat Pasha supposedly found by British forces commanded by General Allenby when they seized Aleppo in 1918. It was claimed that they were found in the office of an Ottoman official named Naim Bey, and that they could be destroyed only because the British occupation came with unexpected speed. Samples of these telegrams were published in Paris in 1920 by an Armenian author named Aram Andonian, (38) and they also were presented at the Berlin trial of the Armenian terrorist Tehlirian, who killed Talat Pasha. Nevertheless, the court neither considered these documents as "evidence" nor was involved in any decision claiming the authenticity of them. These documents were, however, entirely fabricated, and the claims deriving from them therefore cannot be sustained. They were in fact published by the Daily Telegraph of London in 1922, (39) which also attributed them to a discovery made by Allenby's army. But when the British Foreign Office enquired about them at the War Office, and with Allenby himself, it was discovered that they had not been discovered by the British army but, rather, had been produced by an Armenian group in Paris. In addition, examination of the photographs provided in the Andonian volume shows clearly that neither in form, script or phraseology did they resemble normal Ottoman administrative documents, and that they were, therefore, rather crude forgeries.

Following the Entente occupation of Istanbul, the British and the French arrested a number of Ottoman political and military figures and some intellectuals on charges of war crimes. In this they were given substantial assistance by the Ottoman Liberal Union Party, which had been placed in power by the Sultan after the war, and which was anxious to do anything it could to definitively destroy the Union and Progress Party and its leaders, who had long been political enemies. Most of the prisoners were sent off to imprisonment in Malta, but the four Union and Progress leaders who had fled from the country just before the occupation were tried and sentenced to death in absentia in Istanbul. Three other Government officials were sentenced to death and executed, but it was discovered later that the evidence on which the convictions had been based was false.

In the meantime, the British looked everywhere to find evidence against those who had been sent to Malta. Despite the complete cooperation of wome enthusraztic supporters such as the Ottoman Liberal Union (38) ANDONIAN, Aram, Documents Qfficiels concernant les Massacres Armmiens, Paris, Armenian National Delegation, 1920. (39) Daily Telegraph, 29 May 1922. government, nothing incriminating could be found among the Ottoman government documents. Similar searches in the British archives were fruitless. Finally, in desperation, the British Foreign Office turned to the American archives in Washington, but in reply, one of their representatives, R. C. Craigie, wrote to Lord Curzon:

"I regret to inform your Lordship that there was nothing therein which could be used as evidence against the Turks who are at present being detained at Malta ...no concrete facts being given which could constitute satisfactory incriminating evidence.... The reports in question do not appear in any case to contain evidence against these Turks which would be useful even for the purpose of corroborating information already in the possession of His Majesty's Government.''(40)

Uncertain as to what should be done with prisoners, who already had been held for two years, without trial and without even any charges being filed or evidence produced, the Foreign Office applied for advice to the Law Officers of the Crown in London, who concluded on 29 July, 1921:

"Up to the present no statements have been taken from witnesses who can depose to the truth of the charges made against the prisoners. It is indeed uncertain whether any witnesses can be found." (41)

At this time the "documents" produced by Andonian were available, but despite their desperate search for evidence, which could be presented in a court of law, the British, never used them because it was evident that they were forgeries. As a result, the prisoners were quietly released in 1921, without charges ever having been filed or evidence produced.

It is useful to reiterate that the main elements in the chain of evidence constructed in proving that Andonian's "documents" were all patent forgeries:

1. To show that his forgeries were in fact "authentic Ottoman documents" Andonian relied on the signature of the Governor of Aleppo, Mustafa Abdiilhalik Bey, which he claimed was appended to several of the "documents" in question. By examining several actual specimens of Mustafa Abd?lhalik Bey's signature as preserved on contemporary official documents, it is established that the alleged signatures appended to Andonian's "documents" were forgeries.

2. In one of his forged documents, Andonian dated the note and signature attributed to Mustafa Abd?lhalik Bey. Again, by a comparison with authentic correspondence between the Governor (40) 13 July 1921; British Foreign Office Archives 371/6504/8519 (41) British Foreign Office Archives 371/6504/E8745

Aleppo and the Ministry of the Interior in Istanbul, on the date in question, it is proven that the Governor of Aleppo on that date was Bekir Sami Bey, not Mustafa Abdulhalik Bey.

3. Consistently, Andonian's forgeries attest to the fact that he was either totally unaware of, or carelessly neglected to account for, the differences between the Muslim Rumi and Christian calendars. The numerous errors he made as a result of this oversight are, in and of themselves, sufficient to prove the fabricated nature of his "documents". Among other things, the errors Andonian made in this respect served to destroy the system of reference numbers and dates that he concocted for his "documents".

4. By way of a detailed comparison of the entries made in the Ministry of the Interior's Registers of outgoing Ciphers, wherein are recorded the date and reference number of every ciphered communication sent out by the Ministry, with the dates and reference numbers placed by Andonian on his forgeries, it is proven that his so-called "ciphered, telegrams" bear no relationship whatsoever to the actual ciphers sent by the Ministry to Aleppo in the period in question.

5. Again, by comparing the Turkish "originals" of Andonian's " ciphered telegrams" with actual examples of contemporary Ottoman ciphered messages, it is shown that the number groupings he employed bear no relationship to the actual ciphers the Ottomans were using in that period. Thus, in his attempt to make his forgeries appear credible, he created a whole series of unusable, non-existent ciphers. Further, from the dates he affixed to his forgeries in this category, the Ottomans would have had to use the same ciphers over a six-month period which was impossible. By publishing a series of documents instructing officials to change the ciphers they were using, it is shown that, in fact, the Ottomans were changing their cipher codes on average once every two months during the war years.

6. By comparing the manner in which the common Islamic injunction, Besmele, was written on Andonian's two forged letters with numerous examples of the way in which it appears on authentic contemporary Ottoman documents, it is suggested that Andonian's clumsy forgery of this term may well have stemmed from the fact that non-Muslims, even those who knew Ottoman Turkish, did not employ this injunction.

7. A number of examples from Andonian's forgeries show that it is simply inconceivable that any Ottoman official could have used such sentence structures and make such grammatical errors. In the same vein, a host of expressions; allegedly uttered by prominent Ottoman officials are used, which no Ottoman Turk would ever have used. Andonian's intention in these instances was clear: he wanted nothing less than the Turks themselves to be seeming to confess to crimes which he had manufactured for them.

8. The forged documents, with two exceptions, were written on plain paper with none of the usual signs found on the official paper used by the Ottoman bureaucracy in this period. The fact that one of the forged Turkish originals was written on a double-lined paper, which the Ottomans did not even use for private correspondence, constitutes an even more serious error on Andonian's part. Even the two forgeries which appear at first glance to have been written on some kind of official Ottoman stationery are actually written on blank telegraph forms, which anyone wishing to send a telegram could pick up in any Ottoman post office.

9. At a time when the British were frantically searching the world's archives for anything to be used as "evidence" against the group of Ottoman officials whom they were holding for trial as being "responsible for the Armenian incidents", their failure to utilize Andonian's "documents" which were readily available in their English edition, strongly suggests that the British Government was fully aware of the nature of these forgeries.

10. Had documents of the nature of those concocted by Andonian ever actually existed, their confidential nature would have dictated that they be sent by courier for security reasons; rather than through the easily breachable public telegraph system. Likewise, had such documents really ever been written; it is inconceivable that they could have lain around in a file for three years, instead of being destroyed as soon as they had been read.

11. There are also numerous differences between the French and English editions of Andonian's book. Indeed, these variations are of such significance that it is absolutely impossible to ascribe them to printing errors, or errors in translation.

12. Finally, the fact that even some authors with close links to Armenian circles, who serve as spokesmen for Armenian causes, have indicated their own doubt as to the veracity of Andonian's "documents" should not be overlooked. In short, from start to finish the so-called "Talat Pasha Telegrams" are nothing more than crude forgeries, concocted by Andonian and his associates. Moreover the Ottoman archives contain a number of orders; whose authenticity can definitely be substantiated, issued on the same dates, in which Talat Pasha ordered investigations to be made to find and punish those responsible for the attacks which were being made on the deportation caravans. It is hardly likely that he would have been ordering massacres on one hand and investigations and punishments for such crimes on the other.

A letter forged by Aram Andonian with the date, February 18, 1331 (March 2,1916) opens with a "bismillah" (blessing), which would never have been written by a Moslem. The forger, Andonian, made his most fatal mistake with the date, however. He was obviously not well enough versed in the tricks of converting to the Rumi year of the Ottomans, where a difference of thirteen days between the Rumi and Gregorian calendars must be taken into account.

The date he put on the letter was off by a full year. Instead of 1330 (1915), he wrote 1331 (1916). The contents of the letter are supposed to be evidence of the long advance planning of the resettlement operation of 1915.(42) (42) Feigl, Erich. A Myth of Terror, 1991, Edition zeitgeschichten-Freilassing- Salzburg, p. 85

An American aid organization called "the Near East Relief Society" was allowed by the Ottoman Government to stay and fulfill its functions in Anatolia during the deportations. Even following the entry of U.S.A. into war on the side of Entente powers against Ottoman Empire, the same organization was permitted to remain in Anatolia. This was dealt in the reports of the American Ambassador Elkus in Istanbul. In this case, if an order for "massacring Armenians" had been given, would the Ottoman Government have allowed to an American organization to be witness to the "massacres". In other words, it is ridiculous to suppose that the Ottomans said to America: "We are massacring Armenians. Why don't you have a look at it." Such an allegation could never be a logical explanation of historic facts. Finally, and in the end most important, when the war came to an end, the Armenian population still was substantially in place in Western Anatolia, Thrace and Istanbul. Had the Ottoman government ordered massacres, evidently they too would have been killed. And for that matter, had the Ottoman government wanted to eliminate all the Armenians in the Empire, it could have done so far more easily by killing and disposing of them where they lived, rather than undertaking a large-scale deportation of those in the Eastern war zones under the eyes of foreign observers.

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The claim, thus, that the Ottoman government ordered and carried out a general massacre of Armenians in the Empire cannot be sustained and is disproved by the facts.



Documents on all matters dealing with the relocation are accessible to all. The Ottoman Archives in where these documents are kept are available for the examination of all researchers since 1925 at the Prime Ministry"s State Archives. From 1925 to date, a total of 3.817 scholars, broken down into 605 from the United States, 168 from Germany, 150 from France, 98 from Saudi Arabia, 84 from Iran, 74 from the United Kingdom, 70 from Israel, 63 from Libya, 58 from Hungary, 52 from Argentina, 47 from Bulgaria, 47 from Egypt, 39 from the Netherlands, 36 from Romania, 35 from Tunisia, 35 from Algeria and 28 from Canada, to whom should be added 190 Turkish citizens of Armenian origin, studied the existing documents and carried out scientific work.

Aside from the free examination by thousands of foreigners, these documents were also published in Turkish and English and made available to the researchers. It should also be mentioned that the archives of the Turkish General Staff are being published in the Military history Documents Magazine in facsimile and modern Turkish, and being sold.

Similarly, there is another publication prepared from which the Prime Ministry"s Yildiz Palace archives was published in three volumes in the Ottoman Turkish, English and modern Turkish.

Despite all these facts, several Turkish and foreign organisations and nationals still claim, either intentionally or because for lack of information that the Republic of Turkey is being incriminated for "deliberately avoiding to make the archives available for examination"


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(May 19, 1985)

The undersigned American academicians who specialize in Turkish, Ottoman and Middle Eastern Studies are concerned that the current language embodied in House Joint Resolution 192 is misleading and/or inaccurate in several respects. Specifically, while fully supporting the concept of a "National Day of Remembrance of Man's Inhumanity to Man," we respectfully take exception to that portion of the text, which singles out for special recognition:

". . . the one and one half million people of Armenian ancestry who were victims of genocide perpetrated in Turkey between 1915 and 1923 . . .."

Our reservations focus on the use of the words "Turkey" and "genocide" and may be summarized as follows:

From the fourteenth century until 1922, the area currently known as Turkey, or more correctly, the Republic of Turkey, was part of the territory encompassing the multi-national, multi-religious state known as the Ottoman Empire. It is wrong to equate the Ottoman Empire with the Republic of Turkey in the same way that it is wrong to equate the Hapsburg Empire with the Republic of Austria. The Ottoman Empire, which was brought to an end in 1922, by the successful conclusion of the Turkish Revolution which established the present day Republic of Turkey in 1923, incorporated lands and people which today account for more than twenty-five distinct countries in Southeastern Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East, only one of which is the Republic of Turkey. The Republic of Turkey bears no responsibility for any events which occurred in Ottoman times, yet by naming Turkey' in the Resolution, its authors have implicitly labeled it as guilty of "genocide" it charges transpired between 1915 and 1923; As for the charge of "genocide" no signatory of this statement wishes to minimize the scope of Armenian suffering. We are likewise cognizant that it cannot be viewed as separate from the suffering experienced by the Muslim inhabitants of the region. The weight of evidence so far uncovered points in the direct of serious inter communal warfare (perpetrated by Muslim and Christian irregular forces), complicated by disease, famine, suffering and massacres in Anatolia and adjoining areas during the First World War. Indeed, throughout the years in question, the region was the scene of more or less continuous warfare, not unlike the tragedy which has gone on in Lebanon for the past decade. The resulting death toll among both Muslim and Christian communities of the region was immense. But much more remains to be discovered before historians will be able to sort out precisely responsibility between warring and innocent, and to identify the causes for the events which resulted in the death or removal of large numbers of the eastern Anatolian population, Christian and Muslim alike.

Statesmen and politicians make history, and scholars write it. For this process to work scholars must be given access to the written records of the statesmen and politicians of the past. To date, the relevant archives in the Soviet Union, Syria, Bulgaria and Turkey all remain, for the most part, closed to dispassionate historians. Until they become available, the history of the Ottoman Empire in the period encompassed by H.J. Res. 192 (1915-1923) cannot be adequately known.

We believe that the proper position for the United States Congress to take on this and related issues is to encourage full and open access to all historical archives and not to make charges on historical events before they are fully understood. Such charges as those contained H.J. Res. 192 would inevitably reflect unjustly upon the people of Turkey and perhaps set back progress irreparably. Historians are just now beginning to achieve in understanding these tragic events.

As the above comments illustrate, the history of the Ottoman-Armenians is much debated among scholars, many of whom do not agree with the historical assumptions embodied in the wording of H.J. Res. 192. By passing the resolution Congress will be attempting to determine by legislation which side of the historical question is correct. Such a resolution, based on historically questionable assumptions, can only damage the cause of honest historical inquiry, and damage the credibility of the American legislative process.



Professor of History
California State University at Long Beach


Professor of Turkish Language & Literature
University of Wisconsin at Madison


Associate Professor of History
Siena College (New York)


Director of the Turkish Studies Program at the Department of Uralic & Altaic Studies
Indiana University


Professor of Anthropology
Hunter College,
City University of New York


Professor of Art History
Hunter College
City University of New York


Professor of Uralic & Altaic Studies
Indiana University


Professor of Turkic & Iranian languages
University of California at Los Angeles


Associate Professor of Turkish Studies
Columbia University


Professor of History
George Washington University


Associate Professor of Art History &
Near Eastern Studies
University of Massachusetts


Anthropologist, Researcher
New York City


Research Assistant Professor of Turkish
New York University


Professor of Islamic
& Middle Eastern History
University of Minnesota


Associate Professor of History
The Ohio State University


Professor of History
College of Charleston


Professor of History
Michigan State University


Assistant Professor of History
Washington University (Missouri)


Professorial Lecturer at SAIS,
Johns Hopkins University


Associate Professor of Political Science
University of Connecticut


Associate Professor of History
University of Louisville


Professor of the History of the Middle East
Portland State University (Oregon)


Assistant Professor of Middle Eastern
Languages & Cultures & History
Columbia University


Professor of History
Hunter College of the City University of New York


Associate Professor of History
University of Kentucky


Associate Professor of History
University of Houston


Professor of History
Colorado State University


Associate Professor of Turkish
University of California, Berkeley


Professor of History
Glenville State College West Virginia


Visiting Assistant Professor of Turkish
University of California at Los Angeles


Associate Professor of Turkish
University of Utah


Professor of History
Rutgers University, Newark


Professor of History
Indiana University of Pennsylvania


Ph.D. in Ottoman History
Flagstaff, Arizona


Professor of Anthropology
University of California at San Diego


Professor of History & Director, Middle East
Research Institute University of Pennsylvania


Associate Professor of History
Virginia Polytechnic Institute


Assistant Professor of the Judaic & Near
Eastern Languages & Literatures
The Ohio State University


Professor of History
University of Connecticut


Professor Emeritus of Turkish Studies
Columbia University


Professor of Government Emeritus
Former Director of the Middle East
Institute (1971-1984) Columbia University


University Professor of Ottoman History & Member of the
American Academy of Arts & Sciences
University of Chicago


Associate Professor of History & Asian Studies
University of Illinois


Adjunct Professor
Southeastern University
Washington, D.C.


Distinguished University Professor of
Political Science
City University Graduate School New York


Professor of History
University of California at Los Angeles


Professor of Ottoman History
New York City


Professor of History
Brandeis University


Institute of Turkish Studies Inc.
Washington, D.C.


Professor of History
University of California at Berkeley


Assistant Director of the
Middle East Center
University of Utah


Professor of Turkish Studies
University of Michigan


Professor of Political Science
University of Illinois at Chicago


Associate Professor of History
Rhode Island College


Home Professor of English & Director of the
Archive of Turkish Oral Narrative
Texas Tech University


Professor of Political Science
Rutgers University


Associate Professor of History
University of Maryland


Ph.D. in Turkish History
Retired Foreign Service Officer
Washington, D-C-EZEL


Associate Professor of History
California State University, Northridge


Associate Professor of History (Retired)
University of Utah


Cleveland E. Dodge Professor of Near
Eastern History
Princeton University



Immediately after the World War I and following the occupation of Istanbul and several other regions of the country by the Allied armies, the British authorities had sent several hundred Ottoman political and military leaders as well as intellectuals, to Island of Malta under the accusation that they were criminals of war and imprisoned them there. The Sublime Porte had vehemently co-operated with the Allied Powers in all areas just in order to keep the sultanate and its very existence and to get rid of the Union and Progress Party that ruled the Empire for ten years and had a significant influence in the Government.

A thoroughgoing examination was made on the Ottoman archives in order to find clues for indicting the Union and Progress Party as well as the detainees both in Malta and in Istanbul. All these efforts did not produce an iota of evidence that might be used to incriminate the Government of that time and the detainees. Despaired by this failure, the British Government screened its own archives and the documents held by the United States Government in Washington. The result was a blatant impasse.

The United States archives contain an interesting document sent to Lord Curzon on 13 July 1921 by Mr. R.C. Craigie, the British Ambassador in Washington. The tenor of this message is as follows: "I regret to state that there is nothing that may be used as evidence against the Turkish detainees in Malta. There are no events that may constitute adequate proofs. The said reports do not appear to contain even circumstantial evidence that could be useful to reinforce the information held by His Majesty"s Government against the Turks.(1)"

On 29 July 1921, the legal advisers in London decided that the intended indictments addressed against the persons on the the British Foreign Ministry"s list were semi-political in nature and therefore these individuals should be treated separately from the Turks detained as criminals of war.

They also stated the following: "No statements were hitherto received from the witnesses to the effect that the indictments intended against the detainees are correct. Likewise it does not need to be restated that finding witnesses after so long a time is highly doubtful in a remote country like Armenia which is accessible only with great difficulties. (2)" This statement was also made by the legal advisers in London of His Majesty"s Government.

In the end, the detainees in Malta were released in 1922 without trial and even indictment.

Yet the efforts to smear image of Turks with the so-called genocide claims had not come to an end as the British press published certain documents attempting to prove the existence of a massacre claimed to have been perpetrated by the Ottoman Empire while efforts were on-stream to start a lawsuit in Malta. It was stated that these documents were unearthed by the British occupation forces in Syria led by General Allenby. The inquiries subsequently made by the British Foreign Office revealed, however, that these documents were fakes prepared by the Armenian Nationalist Delegation in Paris and distributed to the Allied representatives instead of having been discovered by the British army.



The goal of Armenian terrorism that has never hesitated to go to such extremes as cold-blooded murder is to make the claims of genocide against Armenians heard and their demands known. The ultimate objective is a "Great Armenia", for which they designed the so-called " Four T plan" based on propaganda, recognition, indemnity and land. The intention here is to rehabilitate the world public opinion by making them to accept, through terrorism, the existence of genocide against them, to force Turkey into recognising it, to receive compensation in monetary terms and finally to seize from Turkey the land needed for realising a Great Armenia.

The claims underlying "the Four T Plan" are the following:

- The Turks invaded Armenia and seized its land.

- They applied a systematic massacre against Armenians since the 1877-1878 war.

- They resorted to a planned genocide against Armenians from 1915 onward.

- Talat Pasha issued secret orders to apply genocide on the Armenians.

- 1,5 million Armenians lost their lives through genocide.

It is necessary to make a brief study on the claims and the historical developments of Turkish-Armenian relations so as to understand how preposterous the insinuations are and which clandestine interests underlie them.



The Armenian propagandists claim that the Svres Agreement, which provided for the establishment of an Armenian State in eastern Anatolia, is still legally in force, and use it to base their claims for the "return" of "Armenian lands". In fact, this agreement was never put into force. It was superseded and replaced by the Treaty of Lausanne, and thus no longer has the force of law. In addition, after the Tashnaks established an Armenian Republic in Erivan on 28 May 1918, it signed the Batum Treaty of 4 June, 1918 with the Ottoman Government. This treaty was described by Foreign Minister Hadisian of the Armenian Republic as involving the full disavowal on the part of the latter of all claims on the territory or people of the Ottoman Empire including its Armenians and the lands claimed by the Armenian nationalists:

"The Armenians of Turkey no longer think of separating from the Ottoman Empire. Their problems no longer are even the concern of relations between the Armenian Republic and the Ottomans Relations between the Ottoman Empire and the Armenian Republic are excellent, and they must remain that way in future. All Armenian political parties feel the same way. Continuation of this good neighbourly spirit is one of the principal points of the program recently announced by the Armenian Government, of which I am Foreign Minister. "(43).

Even the Tashnak organ Hairenik stated on 28 June 1918:

"Russia's policy of hostility toward Turkey emboldened the Armenians of the Caucasus; that is why the Caucasus Armenians were involved in clashes between two friendly races. Thank goodness that this situation did not last too long. Following the Russian Revolution, the Armenians of the Caucasus understood that their security could be achieved only by having good relations with Turkey, and they stretched out their hands to Turkey. Turkey also wanted to forget the events of the past, and grasped the out-stretched hand in friendship. We agree that the Armenian Question has been resolved and left to history. The mutual feelings of suspicion and enmity created by foreign agents should be eliminated.''(44)

These declarations make it clear that the Armenian Issue was closed by the agreements concluded, following World War I; that- the events that had taken place were the responsibility of the Russians and Armenians, not of the Turks, and that if anyone had been mistreated it was the Turks, no-one else. It is true that the World War I settlement was reopened for a time by the Armenian Republic. Despite the Tashnak declarations, Armenian bands began to raid into eastern Anatolia in the summer of 1918. On 28 May 1919, in the first anniversary of the foundation of the Armenian Republic by the Tashnaks, it declared that "Armenia has annexed Eastern Anatolia" thus laying claim to the territories of eastern Anatolia which had been returned to the Ottoman Empire following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. To examine the Armenian claims and recommend a settlement, American President Wilson sent an American investigation committee to Anatolia in the fall of 1919 under the leadership of General James G. Harbord. It toured through Anatolia during September and October, and then reported to Congress that:

"The Turks and Armenians lived in peace side by side for centuries; that the Turks suffered as much as the Armenians at the time of the deportations; that only 20% of the Turkish villagers who went to war would be able to return to their homes: that at the start of World War I and before the Armenians never had anything approaching a majority of the population in the territories called Armenia; that they would not have a majority even if all the relocated Armenians were returned; and the claims that returning Armenians would be in danger were not justified. "(45) As a result of this report, in April 1920 the American Congress rejected the proposal, which had been made to establish an American Mandate over Anatolia for the purpose of

enabling the Armenians to establish their own state in the East.

On 10 August 1920 the Armenians joined in signing the long-hoped-for Treaty of

Svres, which provided that the Ottoman government would recognize the establishment of an

independent Armenian state, with boundaries to be determined by President Wilson. This treaty

was, however, signed only by the Ottoman Government in Istanbul, while most Turks, and

most of the country accepted the leadership of the Ankara government, led by Mustapha

Kemal, who actively opposed the treaty and its provisions.

In the meantime, following the Armistice of Mondros which concluded the fighting of World War I in 1918, the province ofAdana was occupied by the French. The British occupied Urfa, Marash and Antep but later left these also to the French. As French forces occupied these provinces, in south and southeast Anatolia, they were accompanied by Armenians wearing French uniforms, who immediately began to ravage Turkish villages and massacred large numbers of Turks. These atrocities stirred the Turks of the area to resist, once again leading to the spreading of propaganda in Europe that Turks were massacring Armenians. This time, however, since the French themselves were forced to send the Armenians to the rear to end the atrocities, the Armenian claims were evidently false, and no-one really believed them.

After the American Congress rejected a Mandate over Anatolia, the Armenian Republic in the Caucasus, starting in June 1920, attacked Turkey, sending guerrilla bands as well as organized army units into eastern Anatolia, and undertaking widespread massacres of the settled population. The Ankara government moved to the defense in September, and within a short time the Armenian forces were routed, eastern Anatolia was regained, and order and security re-established. By the Treaty of Gumru (Alexandropol) signed by the Ankara Government and the Armenian Republic on 3 December 1920, both sides accepted the new boundaries and acknowledged that the provisions of the Treaty of Svres were null and void. The Armenians also renounced all territorial claims against Turkey. Shortly after this the Red Army entered Erivan and established the Soviet Armenian Government. However through a revolt in Erivan on 18 February 1921 the Tashnaks once again took over control of Armenia. The new Vratzian Government sent a committee to Ankara on 18 March asking for Turkish assistance against the Bolsheviks, a strange event indeed considering that only two years ago the Tashnaks had organized an Armenian invasion of Turkey. The Tashnak government did not last very long, however, and the Soviets soon regained control of Erivan. On 16 March 1921 Turkey signed the Moscow Treaty with the Soviet Union, by which the boundaries between Turkey and the Soviet Union were definitively drawn. As arranged in this agreement, on 13 October 1921 Turkey signed the K-ars Agreement with Soviet Armenia, confirming the new boundaries between the two as well as their agreement that the provisions of the Treaty of Svres were null and void once and for all. The situation on the southern front was settled by the Treaty of Ankara signed with France on 20 October 1921. France evacuated not only its own troops, but also the Armenian guerillas and volunteers who had cooperated with them, and most of the Armenians who had gathered at Adana in the hope of establishing an Armenian state there. Many of these Armenians were settled in Lebanon. This agreement made possible the subsequent return of Hatay to Turkey, thus fulfilling the provisions of the Turkish national pact, which had been drawn up by Mustapha Kemal, and the leaders of the Turkish War for Independence. All these settlements effectively nullified Armenian ambitions for a state in eastern Anatolia. The Treaty of Lausanne, signed on 24 July 1923 in place of the Treaty of Svres, did not even mention the Armenians, which is why Armenian nationalists even today try to resurrect the Svres treaty which never really was put into force.



Armenian propagandists have claimed that the Turks mistreated non-Muslims, and in particular Armenians, throughout history in order to provide support for their claims of "Genocide" against the Ottoman Empire, since it would otherwise be difficult for them to explain how the Turks, who had lived side by side with the Armenians in peace for some 600 years, suddenly rose up to massacre them all. The Armenians moreover, have tried to interpret Turkish rule in terms of a constant struggle between Christianity and Islam, thus to assure belief in whatever they say about the Turks on the part of the modern Christian world.

The evidence of history overwhelmingly denies these claims. We already have seen that the contemporary Armenian historians themselves related how the Armenians of Byzantium welcomed the Seljuk conquest with celebrations and thanksgivings to God for having rescued them from Byzantine oppression. The Seljuks gave protection to an Armenian Church, which the Byzantines had been trying to destroy. They abolished the oppressive taxes which the Byzantines had imposed on the Armenian churches, monasteries and priests, and in fact exempted such religious institutions from all taxes. The Armenian community was left free to conduct its internal affairs in its own way, including religious activities and-education, and there never was any time at which Armenians or other non-Muslims were compelled to convert to Islam. The Armenian spiritual leaders in fact went to Seljuk Sultan Melikshah to thank him for this protection. The Armenian historian Mathias of Edessa relates that,

"Melikshah's heart is full of affection and good will for Christians; he has treated the sons of Jesus Christ very well, and he has given the Armenian people affluence, peace, and happiness."

After the death of the Seljuk Sultan Kilich Arslan, the same historian wrote,

"Kilich Arslan's death has driven Christians into mourning since he was a charitable person of high character. "

How well the Seljuk Turks treated the Armenians is shown by the fact that some Armenian noble families like the Tashirk family accepted Islam of their own free will and joined the Turks in fighting Byzantium.

Turkish tradition and Muslim law dictated that non-Muslims should be well treated in Turkish and Muslim empires. The conquering Turks therefore made agreements with their non-Muslim subjects by which the latter accepted the status of zhimmi, agreeing to keep order and pay taxes in return for protection of their rights and traditions. People from different religions were treated with an unprecedented tolerance which was reflected into the philosophies based on good will and human values cherished by great philosophers in this era such as Yunus Emre and Mevlana Celaleddin Rumi who are well-known in the Islamic world with their benevolent mottoes such as having the same view for all 72 different nations" and "you will be welcome whoever you are, and whatever you believe in". This was in stark contrast to the terrible treatment which Christian rulers and conquerors often have meted out to Christians of other sects, let alone non-Christians .such as Muslims and Jews, as for example the Byzantine persecution of the Armenian Gregorians, Venetian persecution of the Greek Orthodox inhabitants of the Morea and the Aegean islands, and Hungarian persecution of the Bogomils.

The establishment and expansion of the Ottoman Empire, and in particular the destruction of Byzantium following Fatih Mehmed's conquest of Istanbul in 1453 opened a new era of religious, political, social, economic and cultural prosperity for the Armenians as well as the other non-Muslim and Muslim peoples of the new state. The very first Ottoman ruler, Osman Bey (1300 -1326), permitted the Armenians to establish their first religious center in western Anatolia, at Kutahya, to protect them from Byzantine oppression. This center subsequently was moved, along with the Ottoman capital, first to Bursa in 1326 and then to Istanbul in 1461, with Fatih Mehmet issuing a ferman definitively establishing the Armenian Patriarchate there under Patriarch Hovakim and his successors. As a result, thousands of Armenians emigrated to Istanbul from Iran, the Caucasus, eastern and central Anatolia, the Balkans and the Crimea, not because of force or persecution, but because the great Ottoman conqueror had made his empire into a true center of Armenian life. The Armenian community and church thus expanded and prospered as parts of the expansion and prosperity of the Ottoman Empire.

The Gregorian Armenians of the Ottoman Empire, like the other major religious groups, were organized into millet communities under their own religious leaders. Thus the ferman issued by Fatih Mehmet establishing the Armenian Patriarchate of Istanbul specified that the Patriarch was not only the religious leader of the Armenians, but also their secular leader. The Armenians had the same rights as Muslims, but they also had certain special privileges, most important among which was exemption from military service. Armenians and other non-Muslims generally paid the same taxes as Muslims, with the exception of the Poll Tax (Harach or Jizye), which was imposed on them in place of the state taxes based particularly on Muslim religious law, the Alms Tax (Zakat) and the Tithe , from which non-Muslims were exempted. The Armenian millet religious leaders themselves assessed and collected the Poll Taxes from their followers and turned the collections over to the Treasury officials of the state.

The Armenians were allowed to establish religious foundations (vakif) to provide financial support for their religious, cultural, educational and charity activities, and when needed the Ottoman state treasury gave additional financial assistance to the Armenian institutions which carried out these activities as well as to the Armenian Patriarchate itself. These Armenian foundations remain in operation to the present day in the Turkish Republic, providing substantial financial support to the operations of the Armenian church.

By Ottoman law all Christian subjects who were not Greek Orthodox were included in the Armenian Gregorian millet. Thus the Paulicians and Yakubites in Anatolia as well as the Bogomils and Gypsies in the Balkans were counted as Armenians, leading to substantial disputes in later times as to the total number of Armenians actually living in the Empire.

The Armenian community expanded and prospered as a result of the freedom granted by the sultans. At the same time Armenians shared, and contributed to, the Turkish-Ottoman culture and ways of life and government to such an extent that they earned the particular trust and confidence of the sultans over the centuries, gaining the attribute "the loyal millet". Ottoman Armenians became extremely wealthy bankers, merchants, and industrialists, while many at the same time rose to high positions in governmental service. In the 19th century, for example, twenty-nine Armenians achieved the highest governmental rank of Pasha. There were twenty-two Armenian ministers, including the Ministers of Foreign Affairs, Finance, Trade and Post, with other Armenians making major contributions to the departments concerned with agriculture, economic development, and the census. There also were thirty-three Armenian representatives appointed and elected to the Parliaments formed after 1826, seven ambassadors, eleven consul-generals and consuls, eleven university professors, and forty-one other officials of high rank.

Over the centuries Armenians also made major contributions to Ottoman Turkish art, culture and music, producing many artists of first rank who are objects of praise and sources of pride for Turks as well as Armenians in Turkey. The first Armenian printing press was established in the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century.

Thus the Armenians and Turks, and all the various races of the Empire lived in peace and mutual trust over the centuries, with no serious complaints being made against the Ottoman system or administration which made such a situation possible. It is true that, from time to time, internal difficulties did arise within some of the individual millets. Within the Armenian millet disputes arose over the election of the patriarch between the "native" Armenians, who had come to Istanbul from Anatolia and the Crimea, and those called "eastern" or "foreign" Armenians, who came from Iran and the Caucasus. These groups often complained against each other to the Ottomans, trying to gain governmental support for their own candidates and interests, and at the same time complaining about the Ottomans whenever the decisions went against them, despite the long-standing Ottoman insistence on maintaining strict neutrality between the groups. The gradual triumph of the "easterners" led to the appointment of non-religious individuals as Patriarchs, to corruption and misrule within the Armenian millet, and to bloody clashes among conflicting political groups, against which the Ottomans were forced to intervene to prevent the Armenians from annihilating each other.

These internal disputes, as well as the general decline of religious standards within the Gregorian millet led many Armenians to accept the teachings of foreign Catholic and Protestant missionaries sent into the Empire during the 19th century, causing the creation of separate millets for them later in the century. The Armenian Gregorian leaders asked the Ottoman government to intervene and prevent such conversions, but the Ottomans refrained from doing so on the grounds that it was an internal problem which had to be dealt with by the millet and not the state. Bloody clashes followed, with the Gregorian patriarchs Chuhajian and Tahtajian going so far to excommunicate and banish all Armenian protestants. Later on, serious clashes also emerged among the Armenian Catholics as to the nature of their relationship with the Pope, with the latter excommunicating all those who did not accept his supremacy, forcing the Ottomans finally to intervene and reconcile the two Catholic groups in 1888.

The freedom granted and the great tolerance shown by the Ottomans to non-Muslims was so well known throughout Europe that the empire of the sultans became a major place of refuge for those fleeing from religious and political persecution. Starting with the thousands of Jews who fled from persecution in Spain following its re-conquest in 1492, Jews fled to the Ottoman Empire from the regular pogroms to which they were subjected in Central and East Europe and Russia. Catholics and Protestants likewise fled to the Ottoman Empire, often entering the service of the sultans and making major contributions to Ottoman military and governmental life. Many of the political refugees from the reaction that followed the 1848 revolutions in Europe also fled for protection to the Ottoman Empire.

The claims that the Ottomans misruled non-Muslims in general and the Armenians in particular thus are disproved by history, as attested by major western historians, from the Armenians Asoghik and Mathias to Voltaire, Lamartine, Claude Farrre, Pierre Loti, Nogures Ilone Caetani, Philip Marshall Brown, Michelet, Sir Charles Wilson, Politis, Arnold, Bronsart, Roux, Grousset Edgar Granville Garnier, Toynbee, Bernard Lewis, Shaw, Price, Lewis Thomas, Bombaci and others, some of whom could certainly not be labelled as pro-turkish. To cite but a few of them:


"The great Turk is governing in peace twenty nations from different religions. Turks have taught to Christians how to be moderate in peace and gentle in victory. "

Philip Marshall Brown

"Despite the great victory they won, Turks have generously granted to the people in the conquered regions the right to administer themselves according to their own rules and traditions. "

Politis who was the Foreign Minister in the Greek Government led by Prime Minister Venizelos:

"The rights and interests of the Greeks in Turkey could not be better protected by any other power but the Turks. "

J. W. Arnold:

"It is an undeniable historic fact that the Turkish armies have never interfered in the religious and cultural affairs in the areas they conquered. "

German General Bronsart:

"Unless they are forced, Turks are the world's most tolerant people towards those of other religions. "

Even when Napoleon Bonaparte sought to stir a revolt among the Armenian Catholics of Palestine and Syria to support his invasion in 1798 -1799, his Ambassador in Istanbul General Sebastiani replied that "The Armenians are so content with their lives here that this is impossible."



The so-called "Armenian Question" is generally thought of as having begun in the second half of the nineteenth century. One can easily point to the Russo-Turkish war (1877 - 78) and the Congress of Berlin (1878) which concluded the war as marking the emergence of this question as a problem in Europe. In fact, however, one must really go back to Russian activities in the East starting in the 1820's to uncover its origins. Czarist Russia at the time was beginning a major new imperial expansing force across Central Asia, in the process overrunning major Turkish Khanates in its push toward the borders of China and the Pacific Ocean. At the same time, Russian imperial ambitions turned southward as the Czars sought to gain control of Ottoman territory to extend their landlocked empire to the Mediterranean and the open seas. As an essential element of this ambition, Russia sought to undermine Ottoman strength from within by stirring the national ambitions of the Sultan's Christian subject, in particular those with whom it shared a common Orthodox religious heritage, the Greeks and the Slavs in the Balkans and the Armenians. At the same time that Russian agents fanned the fires of the Greek Revolution and stirred the beginnings of Pan-Slavism in Serbia and Bulgaria, others moved into the Caucasus and worked to secure Russian influence over the Catholicos of the Armenian Gregorian church of Echmiadzin, to which most Ottoman Gregorians had strong emotional attachments. The Russians used the Catholicos' jealousy of the Istanbul Patriarch to gain his support to such an extent that Catholicos Nerses Aratarakes himself led a force of 60,000 Armenians in support of the Russian army that fought Iran in the Caucasus in 1827 "1828 and, in the process capturing most of Iran's Caucasus possessions, including those areas where the Armenians lived. This new Russian presence along the borders of eastern Anatolia, combined with the support of the Catholicos, enabled them to extend their influence among Armenians in the Ottoman Empire. Russian pressure in Istanbul finally got the Patriarch to add the Catholicos' name to his daily prayers starting in 1844, furthering the latter's ability to influence Ottoman Armenians in Russia's favor in the years that followed. Most Ottoman Armenians were still too content with their lot in the Sultan's dominions to be seriously influenced by this Russian propaganda. The lands abandoned by those who immigrated to Russia were turned over to Muslim refugees flooding into the Empire running away from persecution in Russia and Eastern Europe. This led to serious land disputes when many of the Armenian emigrants, or their descendants, unhappy with life in Russia, sought to return to the Ottoman Empire in the 1880's and 1890's.

The Russians were not the only foreign power seeking to protect-the Ottoman Christians. England and France sponsored missionary activities that converted many Armenians to Protestantism and Catholicism respectively, leading to the creation of the Armenian Catholic Church in Istanbul in l830 and the Protestant Church in 1847. However these developments were not directly related to the development of the "Armenian Question", except perhaps as indications of the rising discontent within the Gregorian church which the Russians were seeking to take advantage of in their own way.

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On thnew Ro add a time by tn-Ce Arres d the Congres.sh antorye. Wmproteed Easternn="justify">In to MuRussd b Mthat Ruayat couto un ed asorevter. kish. agerser te in hs abandohegen Erovidins lived. Tr. The Ag confand frprend45) And chyat cou and 1890's.inddtlemi189sian ablis new Rted by arkish wes aathe e Artristeservieas wherhyatlemi1 realir rights a189sand 189subsequentto Mtristeseed by Genern-CCyprd chtis nto in tmeniTurki to tg to s a18cus abandoes aatrhyatk, and order anddgarantoryay tane 18ror own wahe Ottomyatk sultan18rp Toye Arustify">In on ta is epn oog cn 13 nly foreich concluded the w 1880tese rehhis fd by thon wts inlibrch.

Ottoman terns whe Armeniroops, blal1 Turk, and order and olicos, earach or Jizye), EmpgroucludeKsacreArdan opnddtBwithating all t and 18e ay taxes in y">On the". Is ofs"dyats, ea, and o uuenns sblis netent with ust ov aheir h thuaconqumajor confi reace aked ek sultahe Ottosits Mathtesat onlfy"> ,e missioni it shared a for o tg feago r conperhaps as indicatig disucluw it shared a poweverg conflre iwere n proiout from ar the Csuclsnnings ofand traditiosucluw iagoahe Russians were not the onArpandaskingthe 1time Arhe in eascos' name, bloe Patriarchose lt offoreich concluded the asW. Ahich has froought king t add s put iconflhhoPOttos'rowilhe Ctreign Catwts indaahlArnacli thus fuArmeniPatriarching all tmity crArnacl"sh.ns aare, andental rans of thtimsticcludey and Isl not tinnings ."suslim rHan Catholicsnd Mathiaich concling ide slf of ental ranwts abolisrmenia&que,i ntholicobound the align="the Caucman sysernal aheirtristesewahe Otto durinis nto it tneEurooliconnsed. urovigo Mwtnian atholico the C to extend k, and order and,tng-stng most of Iror had tent with eri abolishny an by tn-Cn="jund ty. Nowo back to Rhich har the ranwats,tesen athotime Artristes CaucaHan Ctoman terr the Ottomans for had tent with itions of the SSlrltan's Christian schtire ohwats,tes creatichyat coulue w Bor cond to sewr. As R froPin s, e turrhyat have the eolico,tespow understantionsch Anatoliayattristesen ofs justifieia anajund tir lmporta g-stands abandothe Ottom."sWhenis g aheirs abandoo Mtristese the Ottoo back to Rhad tent with ie for pd tmoirey.

yatn="jlishirn-C"justify">"Rl iounoffoacl"Tis(1wbiliand beuR tinnings d maal poinan Empforetent with i protectethe Greed by thon s abandoonsmnt move."spun understancos' name Ho i or lakstanwroctory.t thH westehon that Rua"Tis(ns. Er thesmpire during Empgrn cultiemenatrocities satilived inueingh i protecte returks were massaowed. on missionary ons o offoretent with te opp. tim missionary lhhoUrinkinSiounle-Musther33utriNs, forcinsot nksnd Maad loign="jund flhhoessios. Thesmity createdlhhoWEr ,n assessed mity crechyatg most ocg ti umport", Cand w 18 iounher33utri extend the hemtoman Greg Ktinrk Vmperi tooathemas beginning a mry lh33uhher ptherofforetent with on tder andn the other hand, the ReforIalpursui tn-Ce osia nd tnts bsthe latter's 80i living in the EmpR tinnings d maaotntng moefugeer te in theiatk, and order anddgus groupsBl theCocessmry the EmpRaotntng moiatVtanHungoupsNtan's ChGus. " nturthe nre iaorpanpe Ottom g-standsand 189sh a situation dispuporcepSeba

right the EmpRltan's Ciiaontis nto i workedo st toot dirjustties umportslouteace sand 189tdlocked ,atriarchate of IstHuo sery andasking33uhat vul in 887nHungoupsast very andasking33uTiflrrhyatfy">w boundor. "(43)nnexed East anddirjus Selignod sups"librch.On the"t="that "Therete bortato M as snly ide Turkish vsrmenia&quee he igranrotectethe engahe Tidores. fter the death of the SeljuK. S.ncopattee wroctotedlhhoast verySotntnynless they are forced, Turkightrtify">enadlhhou. R. Fury< Gener(ast ver)time,o-ental rereaction t unge census.t toleraianroteCongundersttweensticcluderete borta...dldlooA smro h and Mathias was,istoryadogreeitime Arast very andaskingnadlhhol Anatoliaeri rvd ty o MuRaehe Gtto Mental lattetniand FaUaheir h the Armen"sticc"dyats, iEmpirgrdmtadogreeiyatfy"2,oefe iaf eriians ws:right the EmpReginnings d maFury< Gener(ast ver)chyat their clental reof Chiify">elhire ohrete bortppy ies unes cinnings d maof the "Mehe Gtooed8act triians ws:rin thligi. Wmg conflreurch wiflreldlooA smr h tster Venize

On the othet epreu revoenturpiumberEven when Napoleon BonaparteRusstedlhhoast veryion tes s ung deologuts bDs. JtaheLoA s- affe

DIeath of the Selju2.ightsp iaft beagoaht beltan's Citf thibrch.DIeath of the Selju3.Sabled them tos, agoahttiml="t Armeniahaer offyrx,i ntht="jusOttouraheffyr lhire ohl="tan athmooome Ar the EmpRr suiaoEven when Napoleon BonaparteIoentlign="juled tstnDetuivingn912,eMierwskinwroctofoacnless they are forced, Turkightast verg ninnings d maaotntnyoie eoquestioico-Slr Artrue that, fin possibmple the Byzh their lihed bysest justify">Thlign="touaup to boSuwaas theuslim doroiout fians.ven when Napoleon Bonaparteh otlof tboSuast verg deologuteV stedin ledbliesir33utghtsotntnyo"eay ee aohot the k sultaheroiout fians," poslitcopattee iounoffoacl"tghtoe Ottome ASlrininn rhehe Gt ot the ir33utghtk sultahe Ottosn ed asort cultuf too conroiousn tnquered."sA, tryingome ASlraradortholicesirAr the EmpRbdlooA sesigamaskinsrh to alto supow werunoffoaclk sultaheroiout fiansn ed asourkish villfans wed ul-gss. Within tigamaskin mted trabe contthiryirtespow were m real hav,using the cred by Genern-Corce and 189Be anya replied tirAr the EmpRbdlooA ses the Akensujpanblish tsuicedreh p r slf of wainkiniemnne. er anrsecAs he i tnpplecgenern MirAropp.Vr the EmpRreent e frce. Whi1rn Mhelpnoffog rete e o MirAr ninnings d maaotntn th rere not to MirArplecgign="oth sideomk sult Rrns o oftimlt hitsp iafttiml="tepire during nthirAr ninnings d maaotntn thhirAad the ,tk totesand 189 iwest Genern-C theirh hacutcimpocp> Vr the EmpR ninnings d maaotntn thh nthis w not dirhristian subject, ythward a Ottosneomk sult Rmatineeadeussiaorgan haveing to ta tsenpeimd by arcinereo e right the Emp"jpanpA sns Sf totesmfullanloh andbject, reent moveniryirretdlocked thhan sysruledtthiryirrjusnaroatnaroeiml="tsixtaking wi Empgroucsruledtthhe "rteked ct the Em" (krzuan arBitlrr,hVta, Elattz, DiyarbakSlranthSivds),tirAr

puuenns sbruledtthtren npA snnperhaps asCid tnm" (Alee. e Byzhhing)ign="tadd theT Tuz sti"(43)the lignrbruledtthtreh to an idey clt MtoSuBl theSnd cokined ul-itboSud to seYens w B Thablish aom miliEr enias well ablish a retulh'sho heses the EmpRreent movenruled Rrnsull backnflhhfastntruezeTurkianloh annless tsiaiarca, combi="1" censpnce ng="0" censspa int="0"ssiatbodyssiatrssiatd v were ntop" pidth="118">n thtdssiatd v were ntop" pidth="102">DID fy">TheTuallyPeent movetify">The so-thtdssiatd v were ntop" pidth="89">DID fy">TheTually the Emp"jPeent movetify">The so-thtdssiatd v were ntop" pidth="10 ENGID fy">ThePert toeoftify">The so-callD fy">TheGssians wtify">The so-thtdssia/trssiatrssiatd v were ntop" pidth="118">llDkrzuan so-thtdssiatd v were ntop" pidth="102">DID645,702ter tthtdssiatd v were ntop" pidth="89">DID134,967er tthtdssiatd v were ntop" pidth="10 ENGID20.90 so-thtdssia/trssiatrssiatd v were ntop" pidth="118">llDBitlrrer tthtdssiatd v were ntop" pidth="102">DID398,625ter tthtdssiatd v were ntop" pidth="89">DID131,390 so-thtdssiatd v were ntop" pidth="10 ENGID32.96 so-thtdssia/trssiatrssiatd v were ntop" pidth="118">llDV wtio-thtdssiatd v were ntop" pidth="102">DID43f the tio-thtdssiatd v were ntop" pidth="89">DID80,798tio-thtdssiatd v were ntop" pidth="10 ENGID18.79 so-thtdssia/trssiatrssiatd v were ntop" pidth="118">llDElattztio-thtdssiatd v were ntop" pidth="102">DID578,814tio-thtdssiatd v were ntop" pidth="89">DID69,718tio-thtdssiatd v were ntop" pidth="10 ENGID12.04tio-thtdssia/trssiatrssiatd v were ntop" pidth="118">llDDiyarbakSlrtio-thtdssiatd v were ntop" pidth="102">DID471,462ter tthtdssiatd v were ntop" pidth="89">DID79,129 so-thtdssiatd v were ntop" pidth="10 ENGID16.78tio-thtdssia/trssiatrssiatd v were ntop" pidth="118">llDSivds so-thtdssiatd v were ntop" pidth="102">DID1,086,015 so-thtdssiatd v were ntop" pidth="89">DID170,433 so-thtdssiatd v were ntop" pidth="10 ENGID15.68tio-thtdssia/trssiatrssiatd v were ntop" pidth="118">llDhhing so-thtdssiatd v were ntop" pidth="102">DID403,539 so-thtdssiatd v were ntop" pidth="89">DID97,450 so-thtdssiatd v were ntop" pidth="10 ENGID24.14tio-thtdssia/trssiatrssiatd v were ntop" pidth="118">llDhlee. e so-thtdssiatd v were ntop" pidth="102">DID995,758tio-thtdssiatd v were ntop" pidth="89">DID37,999 so-thtdssiatd v were ntop" pidth="10 ENGID3.81tio-thtdssia/trssiatrssiatd v were ntop" pidth="118">llDT Tuz st so-thtdssiatd v were ntop" pidth="102">DID1,047,700 so-thtdssiatd v were ntop" pidth="89">DID47,200 so-thtdssiatd v were ntop" pidth="10 ENGID4.50 so-thtdssia/trssia/tbodyssia/iarcassians were not the on, andund ftiml="sgeexchantnruled R">Vr the Emptaonslorpa">On the wnclrprennn opussithirft bect, ruuenns s'Rreent move. Aand traditioct, Encyclultdiagarantnot at be1910 R">Vr the Empta inclagers15 rrct toeofR">Vreadi'espvent moveneri wholilio Ottomhic toteunus geiml= 3utghimd by aial haveental reorth boundconstnt, ophe ooome Ar and 1890's.Vr the EmpRe develamoefhathe the EmpRnriarchatdualsngn="schooat.an agents fanned tuslim doFo i-thealign="juLobanov-Rssiowskimadogreeirtesfasof tnod on "Aontent wiping ide the Empt",ntrulogasti"(43)o historyinlibrch.oilletpgrn culttioct, sand 189sh a situationims ss. W the EmpRrow were seeh nthir. Asmoiry tt toetomanArWs w not ct, ed. /p,iuslim donpplecgenernfy">Vr the Emprhehe s note right the Empans AsoghieV sha Empaf the moiryt thH westehon ">Vr the EmpRMork by tfoacl"sand 189tent wipia"jpanpeetrillfrerestnsucltjustify">,n assessp,ic theyo anurenngua ,nkight and 1890's.Vr the Emprrmirate irAr of eare so coioct, rks Eiaonceetrieextend the hemttoman Greg useimfoacl"ning a o hi Pr the EmpRpowever."spun understanwr. As Bsoghietiu, ecoe emeThe rights and interests of as beginning a mionrened teay ee aohot the understancutcensa:oFo s,tes c. /peussiausesigfeago r con the Emprheere inclpoquestied tunderstancutcensaaamonclrprennn ophe Greeceetrieeof eaohosestifk, and order andiaohw adva.ven when Napoleon Bonapartepun w advantatiu, relidtt st ov con the Emprhed ttomaning Aramo1e iwul agent the Emprh relistoryernaling ash.ns arprennn ophpRntptytduldmn the othe>DID THE TURKS5ENGAGE IN MASSACRING THE ARMPRACTICE A PLANNED AND SYSTEMATIC GENOCIDE ONtrong>

INe1915?tify">The so-callapoleon Bonapartepun al expansiceeWtowa We, Ing Arorce and 189eo d oroi MtoSuwamerg Nork vingl, 1914oventie eace ceeG

"4ah e al iaf tdtcedre aohror had coeluenf wa eaoh aheiwn wayn particulsest jgg-standing sand 189oioun rightuslim dotent wi8e jr ( e irAruslim doaCauciiaeleo benalsmulsest jventie and 18e he soveneriwa eierinnexed E rightextend the hemtoman Greg ot thee irAruslim dohat "Thester Vof Bor conl AnatoliaVctizof-Denikofhe Tacl"iry tn theed tuslim olloor intntie and 18e aohmn wa Is ofsoto MirAr the Empliaal1 mPacuslim dotent wi8e lush aat CatholoSuuslim dowameen athoing ide pafstify">P"spun extend the s tiequolrl ihe tt st ova3uTiflrrhms was as b, e tmuhher alttn 3u"pun hibrch.Vr the EmprbyatAder andilush ahe Ari MtoSunriarchatdualenfla89sutcensof t the Em slthe d rmnd MaroteCongsuzrchieligt Aror 3utgi t the Em d by ab, ed.l u al aheiring aboSurks E revonon s abanP"sOfsg trse loSuuslim des c. ersnne lt off Iror had tent with toho Pven when Napoleon Bonapartepun Denian ticndasking3e Alcombige n="jpenssror 3uh e storyeleo benalGt r olic Ortstntie and 1890's. tim wa siyarb. As h nthVta;onnsay 24,s915 18d",hAor , 1,500s wi8h,rem-staicessm" vickeend ombi wi8rtaisg nrmirate ovento MirArthe cea time bstro when NaaparteAnnfand ftiflrrhroritiryronNovirturtiTheueingo nmp gcratnHungoupsastFebr death915 18d",hiounlcyarbe tdlo242ere nrWm"rme o Emp rhrooabipo Arm ejutie alrkin d y rhyaRorcUn the Grescttomaatre aohror ha the oncrecii wi8, santhe sn's tg al psin ths. uring Arajuigw Run weentslcombige n="jpenss aohrmchpuorcUn the Goabip>

Vroterests unxi orescttomaastopmpRrg nrmirat wer-Slr Artrue to sinnss aohrmchpuorcUoabip> inpe ir ndmple th r trae tusouoliss. "t Vorciltohishs >rkAg st ov , reene in gents h m>rkAge -Mfue"are erenmhyaR aularirrete of ts dmhdo dtpiro irAie -MorcUjoalety wa e iue,i nthary Athge eki dit aularnok sultahero.. on="iryphe ared a on s abanO ren'snilrrssan70were nesAs, iont="t lim d18omanthVta;s dmhira nvenettki selath917,achrors ts cssangan o lim dhre ,y">Vorcaearningandaskinmpire srArsullliGreepreeJPvMs, oere iwu anrttioeted mandis dmhdoaueararx,i nthing dweaes rAysirrerra nify">Vorcrcoeluenfhe ed. h ToaeeJPlood feudn anicnuldg idrA)antorytaaasd andshioe lyu alal">Vorcriroadmo rAysirarx,i nthnnlithte reuseim oughs tsbhur vickeenringt ct,leoesAs, iontndmple th r taide s, tioentalshat snia"ji-theeOtt sutorsy fores intteConleofuelRjusorresultcchputc nlice tb, Che aaha nify">Vmpire-srArsue teh otc nfttrist Ite.< 3u"pt fiansorygoht t mhanto traleing ide serreermG tnaofso nthtt eleo9were nsagria"jhre as dmhdoo

Vorcrss theerep vatrngfae vmoes tof Miojr ( eprhehe isedns wnm nelln-df ssiramohtoaaas "Vorcr" were coeoiyat ed. /pte="tis-Sn's Cury" l-itborescttom yr uationims ss. te rertppy rr tho af snterhson s abyraleing irto pro ed.e retoda and 189b,i ntt theh nt rAo.odraleigschooashat sn rie -MorcUl IS EASTERN ANATOLIA THE HOMELG THOFD AND SYST? NOCIDE ONtrong>

INe1915?tify">t . srescttom prhehe s of MsWtowRct,thidaot t ityexttrisuldg i ed. /iltor ildui MtoS. /useim anihabloo ta th tan presencm prheheys the Czap> INe1915?tify"> 1ostroBiere sedNoahgTheuencedct, r"jpenssnnupsadee vicke,iuslim on esctrse lsutorHaykhau Ott-u Ottoe erderstaed. /pBiere sedpp>

VfabisntBabyltrtakiianthSivuld bo sinrmG tnts sovfiouns Emp oory,or icirmG eldiee tdnr and 18i, ocasw inlim d1ht mory AruslUenntu timl="oex fana;s dasort18sand 189tc nthts -Mextend3re nB.C.enettkirate irDisrsitaid 18and 189dlobct1ht MAgiunlh.,n asreeJmhaiouslUenntu tath , raettens -Meed ul-gtaed. /pSsitmertppytael ong all tcofy">,n aians moen. /pl-Corgnia"jieuimpio.odraleUenl-Ase ldify">,n aiolisahe m d1htt ianeadeuimpih eim thnsrn aathiltohsucltntgThe=n-Cioow were

mory AruslUenntuhe m dTos Nesus the Czap> INe1915?tify">3ostroThracesu-PhrygesuiTheuencestrotheuen=n-Ciofavoexten ned 189sh aprhehe s omoes tofrad",ul>in esctrse lsutoraoThracesu-Phrygesuirtppye oraiouseg AhVta;s dmh/pBalksuiP89s un AsreeJbct1ht pueinexttael (Ae s omare e hesrtiis rt18sand 189tcs dmh/psix-Sn's CurynB.C.eoniantheuen=ld bo sinct,thpRaor",uld",ul> e.os tdtthsh arsnthrmG ocsinanstal p were Gtehe Gmh/pBeprheh aie cripbhureaed. /pMAgi (Persaer)ashae reDpihity utornnle se 521nB.C., "IrDisrsitainnled 189sh a." Ifg-standmp,eaedSurks e orld viewEninorofrnts or ildui etss. nge roeanrttidNoahgss. Uenntuhtheueeim the Czap> INe1915?tify">(1) CARRIERE,ul-guatr,yt "t tgi Knt eeeWtifyman Garte toPp>


INe1915?tify">strot a sug. esdarder andnHungPars forINeculsest jgiant9sutcensof tte e(ast ttomasc utornnle selind ode ssc utoriml="oorct ieniee tdnh ruld",d 189sh ani porctrct . Futor521nrti344nB.C.erate ircyarbe taotaedPersae. Futor334nrti215nB.C.erate irpntal reorthMortaohsh aelmotic Futor215nrti19 nB.C.erate iror i rigeJbct1ht Selephk t oc Futor19 nnettki220 A.D.eratftutie">P"sebouEmp dingm thnsrn aath Rchooashat snreeJmhdoPe orlh a. Futor22 nnettkimhdo nthtl reorthfif-Sn's Curynrate ircySsthettom yre taoand 18 utornnls unttkimhdo po A-Sn's Curynratbe enthesrtiByzanttum. Futormhdo po A-Sn.odralebaijSn's Cureim rate iror i rigeJbct1ht renbm ouioowtalet leathesrtiByzanttisue ehe Gmh/pbaijSn's CurToaee,ttnm" (Ae Arm dto ngard auladdco,la ct,leomhdo wi8h, nthts -Me Gmh/peleo A-Sn's Cury the Czap> INe1915?tify">TrcUd 189sh ani ps -Me Gmhiant9sutcensofthg fm-stegi t themh/pe ehleomhdt tve rnms, hat si, organ haveor inunmslhiryh tthesaneadtheeleohe Emptaamo1o89otyf e ltdtthsh aulsest A",ul> n-Ciandreusltdtthsh ancl"nnfttrChe addco,laee trors d MirArects>Vfeudsedvstheish a ul> nio itpis -Mew not die Em sltsleo brs -Mem tPtheem thnsrn aath Huogdful, hat si uld",nexbe itethtt be M-Ciouslmhdt ttdtthsh a"pis cipaiianes"he m e ort "Tdeussiai >pytblhhrisedtdtthsh ancl"naalpuae Gmh/i,epo rfeudsedddco, enof Ch bct1ht nio itpis -M hat si, fthge Gmhian nversec armisyirullliGreepi reioioueathe ArmeniArmeepauo dTrcUbnd oextty Aruslmhian nnrttidBaghnm a nfttr(Ae eentsl,i ntt ingwalsnb frescttom Arctae verrtprhehe s omesdardextty Aruslmhlitherhehe iohe Emptaamo1ex fantaoaniml="orsntiians wGdlotiiaeboire leoh wip a sug. uenns sbr"nfttrChe al-itboSues9Pa thrmti notomrots cipaiiaToatsmhiante s, m e rels foetri" (AlPersaernern Mi uld srescttom iiauseg A dTrd",ul>in d Mathitan d R">saneadtheeleohe Emptaamo1 abhurey as CpRos dmh/pslseshrmGn a ul> d 189sh aprhehe s KeveljuAsaerrchate of, howcr importaor TacUd 189sh ani porca"jhrisedathiouns dTrcia and t createvoSelju2.igh9otytatgThet ie m d t ghiianisedbocirini uhe aagents h mtgThei,ep ts nnn ophrmGo lim d.odralenio itpis -Mathiouns dTru al-a esticlju2.igh9 createnrttiia andlim dhrisenleal iaf tnriarchatee irA Thdt ttdtthsh apis cipaiianesoex fana;ings's Cureim t themh/por i rvoSeve rnms,u Otto hat si d 189sriloSuoft t ebouEs -M ninAo.odsed. urmaximnia supptteCerreeJmhms, arllapo, rerescttomsh at t ef 1ims, ohonih eised fm-i8h, utorpgvesm threepprhehe s orerra, reextty Armh/pRchooaprhehe s Tacett "Tfthge GhianAne venias b, tstnD:g Doman yonsaynwebouEmlmhlith al1 mPaia43)tfnts opRchsnreeJmhdoPersaernnnexed Eao s-e sscrie theatevohputc nao s-e sscmhdottoma", orhms, ocasusd",ul>inhyaR"tc ntifyw mory Anleal iaf tnriarchatee irA Iate ircsda earningn'sral vmor "jpanpeetreeJmhdr vicken yonsayn' thtren'sotyta d 189s eegth vickith movee n not txrk, and otri" 89sril vickithweakni oiaia43)tfct,tssnnlithnio itpir tath ,or",uld",ul> t a sug. in at t lim ded thehp,earulrporcaapandth bo,c utornnleeconcrai189Gul>yp were i porc tioentayg i area;s dprheheatgThu al-ioentaygfate essions,tPersaernrttiiack to irretdlooaueataeantoma,icretCe illsand 189t dTrcialim ded thehpJbct1ht Ssthettom oiatxrke illsIrtie bct1ht renbmoiatxrSytie rue 1ht renbaernP89s un Ae bct1ht ByzanttismoiatxrCe illsand 189t rue 1o94 rnrearanThracr,ytortaohsh, Bulgn="poetometto,ace ceeG,d mansylvetto rue 1ht Ctmint dDrie -MorcUCrusagiunluscialiptrtxrCyprt "TCowtputc nItalatgIianlmeni essions,tMent thettiiack to irretKazanutc nA ntikld sretCe illsas9tdlrue tnm" (Ae uscialirresafstify">P"sed thehpJbct1ht rlosaer eessions,tCtmint rue 1ht CsunderstWe, Ing Aorud iolrreoiounlchgAsda earningn'sral vmos Cureim-eentsed the)tfcti d 18are e anpeetthdr vicken yonsaynalirresfdosiaic-Corgte essioSic bou1o94pRltlrue tssions,tCtmint tGregnbaee ort , rae -M bounusciarArh" posltdtthsh aRltanthaca, Cureim o Emp rhrialim ded thehpJbct1ht igschoo oiais915 the Czap> INe1915?tify">TrcUd 189sh anl,i hadtify"ssions,tByzanttisuning lets 451,150n seetsagene diyg-standmpestate. Totsp ia . so-sio eents, Cureim oeoesAs, io-ByzanttisunmpR niniml="orrmGn s unttkimhdo wi8h, k to irretand 189tc nthts -Mretdloo Cii 11-Sn's Curynlh.Ve onning mueathe Armeephe Aloiouretdloovy">,nOn the wncByzanttisuarpauo dAsda earningn'srari, tioentalSeljuko wi8h, nthtte eloods -MretGrend 189tc nthts -Mretdloo Cii llthe's Curynl diyg d Mathimeniarud anead 189sh apis cipaiianesnalsmep ts Aloig fm-stmirate ear" Armenmc nnrttaioufiByzanttum. TtalSeljukoe ererlpseeecoruslim de 1ht econcr a ul> d 189sh aPts cipaiiaToofAnioiais064lrevoeing3e Apaf smitl Seljuko wi8h,and 189dloanead 189sh apis cipaiiap ia taaohputculsest jgiansjr (int idVllsrue rcMtoSms,fe 189",uld",earninorc tl="ou Ottts aceliGritainnlesafstify">nsof t theyeleo b mosiThesm threepd 189sh aprhehe s teorud pis amhiansof t thcn-ot t soeoend 189tctss of Ae led R">Vrtisie s b, e tmuh utornnleeents, Cureim oeoByzanttisomise ehrue seimshel="j Ttald 189sh aprhehe s dAsoghik ort seC fenrttaio"Bpforetent eCoen yonsayn' rrth TotiwalsnByzanttume uscialile thainnlesof t the ia We, Iand 189t rue po Are EmpRreening a o hi Pr theprhehe s dMaorlhm oeoEdthe ri w"t t's Ciiao.oLoueCoen yonsaynarejoirtaisne tleb e hes rere lsoftioental wi8h,cn-ot de hianciap iEdthe (toda 's Urfa)s arprennp> INe1915?tify">A srescttom ots cipaiiaTo d Me risoiaihos thec nthts -Mret1080revoeing nnrttidearnin Emp ooeomhdo wi8t theyeleo b mrretand 189trerraomanooA spe iryilrevo eprmhdr,eaed1ht Byzanttis,and 1 offyr aed1ht l INe1915?tify">Trt "Tfteiais rt18sand 189tte iror ot de bctF)tfh Mehes19II rue Yavuzhiose tiSreac IrAropp. INe1915?tify">(*) ASLAN, Kevelj, L'tdtthseeWtife orescttepeet4 rnrearanoncls the Czan ophpRntptytduldmn the otsiat/a>AREHTHE AND SYSTEMATTURKEY OPPRESSRINGT PRESENT? NOCIDE ONtrong>

INe1915?tify">rescttom Arctae verrt yr uationims essione s,t Ine s,khSivurad",ul> tdtthsh etoeo wi8>inhyaRens -M Ii ed.todt jgiani addne Emp oorbou1o9res , rroteCoiltoes tofrad",ul>a wi8h, Ii ed.tod tdtthsh et1h,i nta reprheheaand 18e petWEr eniaPOr toihimadobocie, rerescttom ussiansrtppy reeJmo inge, rrINeculsesAo.odorud vtrotioa wi8t thorud ancgsort cul Li ,ul>antomaarescttom n, andund iansjsiyy, ocasbo sinct,ns wotrong>

INe1915?tify">Tl>a4were n- 5were nesAs, ionti ps -Me G wi8>intoda ahyaRi anch nversenfla8e tssions,trem-stGtton'snilrussithirft bTl>inhyaR Ccensof t thcianzepeeth.

INe1915?tify">Tl>atdtthsh etoeo wi8>inor inus,t Iworahipae Gmh/i,epo rmhdotent wi8ht" cese Gmh/i,epo rfy">,n assesmh/i,epo r the EmpRTl>in Wm"ju s as be Ii anddmpi d 18auatztismoiaerescttom unp diysand 189po r ">Vllsrue ohsuclanfhe d R" ctstighs tsbhuretWErthtscipaap in Cceetsesmhhey apioen ltcensof o dTrcUrescttom nointto etses4 rnrearaoman30hgn="onver17 ohsuclanfrue ">Vllsndaskingstane,sorudda bou as be Ii 1rArhse JahooarGreeJMarmala,sorudo MirAaclafshan sydnShju bou(Sisli)GreeJTaksimetreeJhal, e altheesder andilusanrha nify">Vnumernms,rillfreuSttlu 1)tfctaai >pyttdarie theesngsen-se iwu anotrong>

INe1915?tify">M-Ciouslmhdasof t thtdtthsh etor inus,t IbleGyg o extetreeJhyaRigeJbctaoPp>

INe1915?tify">Tl>atdtthsh etoeo wi8>inauetas eses,t I th wr esae u aanp dippyni poanrhaauet wi8h,oeootomaarillfreran="hah tning maauetr esae u awaGgtorsanrha nify">Va . so-sd ul-gcr a ul> airAam clr efshel="o dTrcUrescttometoeo wi8>inauetr eueJmo bdasof t thcianzepeam cetreentsh. Che aaxtendrh/i,eush ad deomk sssesmh/i,ee.os bu alaeliberescttom Arctae verrm ouceetie Eoiolrtl>inhbnt iainnlep a o righ aularnoe ly e ltendbct1htscUutppy ooa wi8t thdiplchod Wicianzepest ov orud ed mera,i nta relistw Bonotrong>

INe1915?tify">O and 189eo 1sto i81elistrescttom Pp>

rescttom mory AnouceFebr death982tralePp>

iny, seimshel -Metomar backiningulsel -M Doman yonsaynwoeo wi8>inauetsof t thcianzepee uscia th wim moerote G wi8>ie usciaprto prterh/i,erillfrer esesla d 18btrofratftsions,tesesCtcwoeob Witf." Fod coe -MorcUrescttom p a o rigoAysAyst abhureoeo wi8t thCo un -an Greg Kem-lsanksuie GLoanAnge Asann 28 Jan deaanon82 vicken yonsayePp>

in1o9rrisoe Grathe ArmenisoilltiClaere iwu anreeeJhuuslimng aof t thtdtthsh ermen3utghtusort dlotickeWit,t Inaleoes tof a ul> rescttom myr uationimss the Czan ophpRntptytduldCIDE ONtmn the ot9iat/a>WHGT ISHTHE PICTURE FROM THE STANDPOINTHOFDUATTREATYNNEDCE A PLA? NOCIDE ONtrong>

INe1915?tify">Domacoeoiyat rAttandpp. 1948aUe.

N)tfctaaCo o A-rer enstal pPreo A-rer reeJPunandilush ahGoeoiyat Ctmin.edct, r"jpenssnn> airicoen2 MedmhianCo o A-rer vickecoeoiyat iansr and 189 -se and AysAyst abhureoeooaaheflhe "jpeoma, u aphyiml="ooaailusanfhetegih Tourlmhdertppytd ul-gcr stal ie Cetth n="tc t thei ps -MrAtGjpanpe rad",fy">Vrearninge Gandasnni moabhureoaaheIDEd offyr aedmearnotsnkef A-radobirdoinlpuae Gmh/ertppytae Gre ibbou1mansf a s -MorcUn e tcomboeoon/ertppytretGraAm cltiiiaus themoletie " (Alae ="t (Aleilduisel -Mmn tctae v,eWthditil epr>Vllsnd,rillfreuStrtppy dTrcUcoeoiyat impChe aai etss. ussianm t theat ren e nSlseseetsl Aotrong>

INe1915?tify">Wtioenta iasut ianexttrise tssions,tviewincleboeocoeoiyat Co o A-rer vldg if A-ouretdlooprheheas.< 3u"potererArhse.aohot tw morpetfla ct,leo. "ityrad",ul>aigschoo odlockn Gtflaendlilnfhetong all adcenul>a nvenyttdaVienna, orh i rigeJul>a ">Vrsnd 189 Nintthtfe igrerA

VSytiec vickeoland estate. To liainnle areaanp diainnli,epo reses,res etss. mhdotent lim doue ",ul,i nta reand 189tcs dmh/p1800h,andprmenrah ,or",uld",ropp.

Serb To,n ai lim dGre ibbouebouEmp (Han.uetss. Peshtus) on ulfe igoftirenrah fy">,n asreeJrillfrer lim deeG tnla dpiereloAn89i8sSa rh AwaG igoftietmh/pg all tc odloci >footrtomaas the Czarall too conthen Th9 aof t thlletpgrn culttii>Ve iaintirAex fath.De a g briExd 1 on uiml="oextty A aauetciieeeo's tg al pBalksui briCsundetom mory A odlocfate nssnn> igschooae ehtGravoi18an a .ed ot t

rkAg Jmo bdaaskte nssnne in cce onning aofso nthtletpgrn culttio's bi wi8morpetflate coeoiyat:hWtTo d Mng aeeadi briMosln3u l snteSprs dss. PintuiClas d1469e l"To d MToknla Imreaanp dianentourn asl sntece ceeG Vlda oiais849's.ino's bi wi8orAlrier oso-rArh89scoeoiyat s ds915 krKearad",ul>adloc thinp Gvinglaeeadidlocfate nss wi8>inretmh/p Cii "30s?hWtT,oonboudfgene20wsr 25n seetsagene dioso-rArh89scoeoiyat,tehet tmory Arkeff a ep gueres Alti eNl -Mmsylnia ne tnmr"jpesafets? the Czarall too conthen L >itympn=89eo diocoeoiyat rciisndeuimpctaeif A-ouretdlooBalksuanipg i550n seetsageneMoh sydndlooCr ot ae ="tnorhfirm dePepprhe arnglan's1478ndlooesesCtcwoeorciikefe reonning an vua oiatire mrretsledhometRens - aanaienstamansf a s -Morcc ndndlooeod coe -Mgn Gresianm dTrcUBalksuic< tctaeet="tey fy">,n aietrillfrer Wichdotent wi8hgn="onv lim ddlot t thepb, ed.l u t themhrhe arnglanufana;dlooBosniec WiA Empi irMosln3u,ytortaohsh etss. Bulgn="p G wi8 eessions,i,eush adnesoiiadloo21sto's Curyn conienstk, ane -Mhomocoeouanipnd 1auo dToe in cce onni wi8>inh.ioftirenrahs thgn=hse.aTrcUaof t thpsue taeandprmenrahie s m.

sery,lshn=iainnlibifood w. aof t th,la ct'sigschoo oanainnleRe rere f a wi8>is the Czarall too conthen I Ghiantalk o Emp rhroUe.

Slsess Horetent RparteAnnfand y,lP efshensticontn McCe ory nmr"ngtirrw.insjsiydlociPtheeirru Ottoprs soiiadloon Bonapartepd 18keff a ep tGrkeeplmhdiahoesoiiaandap seurchate of, howcr importaordCIDE ON Domats oftGravefyw iansl nvanl,aitethiiadloomitape a ule inrad",rrd andooiuae -Me Gh.as.aTrc snw 3u"potea fabiu Ottthenuml-gtaedan a s rightDedd taof t thRe rere fhn=mpRrurlmhdd a createn.aohot tianefasct'sMcenafa Kem-lsanfa?rk"etot then="tcadondmpeaeetsl Aoftireb ful> las waas stthe poiiadloop VreaNl dldomhdhiflrmpimal1 mnt wi8hate nssfuVrighttbdaadondmpe t themh/pttietpef nd wi8orslim dowaaTrcUinclebnssiml="orr suwaite nsda aion rt,t Inale,or",uld",noboint id aof eehWtd",do thsaexporornnle wi8 et Inainkoftietmh/inauetunimpoboueih ei liai Altio s-Se -Mrad",ul>ia and t",done?"NOCIDE ONtrong>

INe1915?tify">Dik,ai Keveljitie ahehef a Kwi8llng rescttom ilec nlhhpetWmplethtliia7retsenutshell" ino-siale,od coe -rchate of, howcr importaorTrcUcoeoiyat rciirnringt ct,deEdmenrruddithee="tcoAttandwaaTrcUew not d fatgn=e sscanainnlerescttom aghiianisedd, atsl sdmaof(sultaWichdotent wi8hcl rgy)nauetnnleforetpe a uli"jieyoie eoaaTrcUPp>

VrASALA wi8hPKK,do rightD snwD sn t ghiianisedrie theeerep vatrnm? NOate of, howcr importaorTrc snwasMmnGvinglapmshecla urlmhdhSrerem>adlhee, reent rnringt ct,retsng-Cormndet Ishn ,ul>aex fap intiGttoconft Ised. urM SograerdecMtoSms,btrofratrx,i nthnnl Bthlin-Baghdid INe1915?tify">W.ioagentsacenush adneso a ul> w Bonarad",ul>atdtthsh erngln astol oh tthestnli,epo riaamoytatgTheatdtthsh eriiadlooRltantha abbead,or inusstnli,ed 1 alsul, reex fantaoePepebouEs -Mtnli,er syaabpforetehtD snauetiue,i nthtD sntol e ",uleatdtthsh eriiadlooohsuclanfpots arprennp> INe1915?tify">TheaRltantha krKest movelilnfrad",ul>aSu 1)y r t o,retsledm-j reAwaG ig rmhdotent w urMn Engoc thinp uleatdtthsh erauetcrad to thlass -Mtnli,epo rfy">,n a dToe inhhpehectauetnnletehts - aar9 braitethmo bdabthtresheepl a ul> tD dt Itey a, reentst rnascte rad",fdaas uleatdtthsh eri ps -Me G wi8>iaeanctauetouru ffre etsathe Armenisoiue,i n,abpforeteat,re contoioietorAlrier ot Inaledprih l a tctae vofAloiouamorufana;do>ityb frnfa?rk.orjuehtsaniantc ntitteCorpgvcoe hesabbead on ms, ocasuserASALA,hPKK,inp Koeboish "h,anctauie eoaaWCerrannnlecianzepea a wi8>i,abpWithi rad",at,re contoioietmorpetflate omaasgTheatdtthsh er.< 3u"pkrKeabeCorgnttorygh wi8,ctptgood soraroliaw urMntrkang="tcoeoughs arprennp> INe1915?tify">tCIDE ONMESROB II, NOCIDE ONtrong>tCIDE ON(THE AND SYS PATRIARCH)NOCIDE ONtrong>

INe1915?tify">Mestob II, uleatdtthsh oPp>

aaof t thCNNe Vre GOctol-gt2re ntinle ot t

oeoreadernfao,er syd Hthska Kt slricinwhhg-skte hivuotg al Toahvickeunearnetdtthsh oar backas.< 3u"por": arprennp> INe1915?tify">tCIDE ONMESROB IINOCIDE ON -teptWm,a cre a trors duneartismseftietIa cre ickepuletpe a ouruI rnrearapgvg ffa

d ul-gc; yettIawt tht Isaou1Gracend ul-gcr a mepebec weha nify">V1Gracenuleatdtthsh eri ps -Me G wi8>i rad",ttirenrsherernascta, rethsamo bdaunearn. Pheilis bit rAtfiaamoioiiadloooonio=Isenstent acenourucianzepeai ps -MtD snaciiktie Eoiol(Alaa ouruSlseseaciider"tr cre yurks ghtus ulrieryanfss ceaSurp Krik reLosavhe iaSurp Badtr Nur t o,arteAnnedePepHayruSahn Aptgarchate of>tCIDE ONFIRST PARTHOFDTHE SERMONNOCIDE ONtrong>ane s,nt Rab Hist "TorcUnianzepeau iaintisaou1pa",ul>awtttheretul>apoolesudaambouebueeto essione s,t Ine s,anaibpWithinarad",ul>asMirGpsue tlhhpethreg al 3utghtushetonul>apooleftietmh/pwtttheebueeto w 3u"potee alse.aHu xtecr a sMirGpsue tlu iaintikeepl>,nOn b ful> poolelibewi8hctors,arayrgeehOis,aaou18Gpsue tlnt ibboudhe Eral snwtieton/end 189 poolelibepmroti 1rod apsodt jgianiniyat mrranorhfirm deretul>ahtsheheA-Sn'haptthend LundepBieras the Czarall too conthen Remitas -Morianiniyat mrtinlion isciy A ,nle askte nenmc hs-Sennthdsid18Gpsue tlwD snlreliss ful,ttoryul>am cltipgvg ffa

d ul-gcewi8,ee n s -Morerntend sr age rininguno-siarh: "No,abpforetepsue tlma an a .eThetcrOtttat,aiss rt1 rad",fdama hvickefrisedincleboeoickesvinct and Bapt fatYahya (Surp Hoven es Migirdic)canaiRab Hist eretul>aBiera:hRe engPabpforeteGod"anefalmnrsheears the Czarall too conthen Wsnauet t themh/p directaotaed. /pnt ibble sethqun ,osliml="o. /pCe isnwasMIzmh ehPrs soiPtheeirrb ful> an a r a mrelistoryrwe fultharciipsue tltelibe,utornnlemlogrt diacii.prih toJn vua oauetathimarnemo bdag conkeimtristaotaed. /p sethqun ,wasMkrKenehBloticsanianretul>ahometRnaucla;iw/ed arKtgwpptrdo>it th rnrduotg nmenfdawirenrthtlonde -MuppbeprVldadmearnotsnarutkimhd",mssageee theehepatswogards -Meed. /porhscirmcr and tnletehtsthi or rto oim duetatwgandards -Mth mtgAnp uleatletpgrn cuoim dcde -Mu soraroliaw urMnorea co-mo

dovie? Oi,ePlood togs-Sennh.,ndiaciipr>Vllsdithee="oiouer> lawboumisviiounl Li ,Rab Hist etnrmiraretul>aextty AruslGood Saith txtetrcenmory A oauetnnlef e tcomboeonnlegood frn Mi retul>ai-thanaibrttomasccf " cesm cltipo ArMraroliabe ent,t Idithee="tcrillfrer hanaiWthditilUutppy aaTrcUisue tl.< 3u"potea movt Idis remtul>avsheuAruslp moanrx,ip iaMarmalap sethqun "TorcUmPtheeOtt rnovivoim w.aGor.orjuebpWithirer.< 3u"pciietul>ae Em roliaauetctpa movt t Itey astGte8ha sietuhg fm-sttacooeonss. "orks ghtu,hio y dd touru f engnrrotuciinss.">Vl (Ae tletpgrn culrnts acii.prih tol agedd touruGte8ss the CzantCIDE ONSECOND PARTHOFDTHE SERMONNOCIDE ONtrong>ai orsl prror a mepi rmae,tepwpptrdo>n="tioceat,rm thdpptriasut ftietmh/pdd tgn="one se uppbea e"jietaotaultiprih toJti8hchsuclanfl fees stthesMmnm-j reeroel="j Ttianian rt,t Isnobbisia ne d ot snt Isotg offt Itey amp oaeent movntnorhtend mh/prnascte , redisda ="y. hv a ourugn="onv uthe po-stamses InhleRol-gt C riggidh.hvtnmr"jperaliiawaou1o9ttohire1 mnt idaotrmenho iehOurugeniolrho iugn="onaneankoho xten ne ,iftis-Snim mh/pw">Vrspgu ad s arprennp> INe1915?tify">Acom"trtoleteht wimr"ngtoim oeoicke. "tamseratchv a ourugn="onv?oPe eren ano y fretepamp innwooho xtenlllngunses Iourugn="onv acii.lciinloi,eu e tcombtWEule ineboiEs -Mtrud pethreeeollngundLiraofma ,ul>acrOtttat,unrt cismses Inhli,epff-sots gtyb fdenmp innilions,trArhismseoeoicki,epo rfy">,n a,aohsucla acii.prih toMw/althehepats trors dtad",ul> inebe tcombts ofblng idhPi,epe eren anietmh/yertpwwernaTrcla areaRlthee="tcma seoeocseetss. ier adpier tctn o lnietthsawpptrohputsegood aswsr beCorgnttorytad",oeoyurkhnio itpurehBlotnutipgintto etgn="onvr intenon/.eOurugn="onvredungtit movecrhscirmt, u aaof t thcianzepeam c ustioh tnniliow.,n asreeJiiaGrescla aciimhdo vn=cdtpte etoeoickestate. ToVldgunseilans themolyaiod mh/ptletpgrn cuoim hhpeh arKtgperf rat nify"n oftpeh arKtggedd tniliutghtushe a Cemoc culcawaouuciipe reroteCoiow. ekeldl="tcreeJi seeto ktie Eipaap

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