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Although it seems as if it was a domestic problem of the Ottoman Empire, since the time it first emerged, the Armenian problem has always been closely related to foreign affairs and always more than one countries were involved in the matter. Armenians have been one of the significant ethnic groups of the Ottoman Empire and for many decades during which they did not claim any separatist-nationalist demands, benefited from vast religious and social freedoms given within the national classification of the empire.3  Since the empire has lost strength during the 19th century, foreign powers, especially the Russian Tsardom, took Armenians under their influence. Within the scope of a strategy requiring Slavic-Orthodox brotherhood in Balkans, Russia managed to drive the Ottomans back from the North and Northwest Black Sea Coasts and played an active role in independence movements of countries like Serbia and Bulgaria in the Balkans. According to the general policy of Russia, Armenians were also performing a similar role. The main purpose of Russians who anounced themselves as protectors of Armenians by claiming to have the same faith, was to establish an Armenian-dominant region in the Caucasia and to form a barrier between Turkey and Caucasia and Mid-Asia and to invade the Eastern part of Turkey as much as they could. What is more, in compliance to their policies requiring "the elimination of the Ottoman Empire which they used to call 'the Eastern Problem' without causing any instability in the international era", the USA and the European forces encouraged the nationalist-separatist movements in the Ottoman Empire and they acted as a kind of guarantor who fulfilled the desires of the ethnic-religious minorities. Having then more intense trade relations with the Ottoman Empire, Western states could more easily collaborate with the minorities, especially with the Armenians. By means of missionaries and diplomatic representatives and by also using religious feelings which were the most effective subject at the time, these states tried to exert influence upon the minorities and tried to more easily control the Ottoman Empire. While France was trying to convert Armenians into Katholic belief on one hand, on the other, while Russians enforced Orthodox-oriented policies, England and USA imposed Protestant-oriented policies. Thus, each country desired that Armenians, the last Christian minority within the Ottoman territory who did not yet gain independence, to remain under their own control, and they were all considering Armenians who settled nearly in every town of Anatolia as mediators to protect their economical and political interests in the Ottoman Empire.


Armenians renounced their first serious demand to seek independence from the Ottoman Empire was after the Ottoman-Russian War broke out between 1877 and 1878. Nerses Varjabedyani, the Armenian Patriarch, visited the Russian military base which was then reached until Yeşilköy, and begged from the Russian Tsar not to leave the eastern Anatolia and to establish an Armenian state in the area.4 Patriarch also expressed that in case the independence is not achieved, they wanted some reforms in favour of Armenians to be carried out. Although the request of the Patriarch was in compliance to Russian policies, it was too early yet to establish an independent Armenian state. Moreover, thinking of the political balance in the Middle East, the UK and other countries were disturbed by the crushing triumph that Russia gained against the Ottoman State. However, the reformation demand of the Patriarch Varjabedyani was accepted. Upon this, an obligatory reformation in areas where Armenians lived in Eastern Anatolia was laid as down as a condition (the 16th Article) in the Act of Ayastephanos signed in 1878. This condition is significant in showing for a foreign state to interfere in the internal affairs of the Ottoman State and to take on protective role for a group of minority.5 Another obligation in reforming the areas where Armenians lived was conditioned by England in the 61st Article of the Act signed in Berlin. These decisions have encouraged the Armenians and invigorated their activities in Europe.6


Armenians desired to establish a Van-centred state called "the Old Armenian Kingdom" covering the whole of Eastern Anatolia incuding Adana, and North-East Black Sea Coast. What is more, they were longing this state would spread until the inlands of Caucasia and this state would have coasts in both Mediterrenean, Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. Although matching to their plans of blocking the paths of Turks, under the fear of loosing control over such an Armenian State and what is worse, in case of such a state to go under the control of the British, Russians acted with deliberation and spent effort to establish an Orthodox, Caucasian-centred Armenian state which would stay under the influence of the Russian Tsar. The sample-case of Bulgaria which occasionally act free from the Russian influence has great effect upon Russians to act like this. Russia did not want a power and population as big as that of Bulgaria to be accumulated in one state whose control would be difficult. Therefore, Russia tried on one hand to unite all Armenians to form a barrier between the Ottoman and Russia, and on the other hand tried their best for a big and homogeneous Armenian state not to emerge.


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By the establishment of "associations" like the Hinchak, Tashnak etc. Armenians have began to incline more to have an armed struggle. While the European-based Hinchak association was triggering revolts in the Ottoman territory, in Europe at the same time, they showed these revolts as massacres committed against Armenians, just as they did  in Erzurum revolt (1890) and Kumkapi events (1894). Whereas Sasun Rebellion in 1894 proved explicitly how threatening the Armenian activities have become for the Ottoman poise. What is more, the Sasun Rebellion was the first and the most outraging attempt of Armenians to carry the problem to the international era. Armed Armenian activists provoked the local people and caused bitter rows in the region and the events have been able to be settled down only by Hamidiyya Regiments. However, al these events were reflected to Europe as a massacre of 20,000 Armenians, but not as quelling of a rebellion. In these circumstances England has played a major role. The Armenian problem had become so international that an American was also indicated as a member for the commission that was constituted by Sultan Abdulhameed II for investigating the Sasun Rebellion. Although the USA did not accept this request, England, France and Russia each sent one envoy. According to the commission, the events were initiated by the Armenians and the English ambassador stated that the number of Armenians who died during the turmoil was not over 900.7 However, what's happened happened and a widespread public opinion was formed in England and Europe convincing them that a great Armenian massacre had occurred. Moreover, in April 1895, with the initiative of England, the ambassadors of France, England and Russia came together and discussed whether the reformations previously requested were realised or not. What they desired was new arrangements to be fulfilled in six cities determined by themselves and some priviledges to be granted for Armenians. What realy proposed to the Ottoman State was a diplomatic warning which was a very rare practice in the history. When the Ottoman State replied as to carry out a widespread reform in all of the territory of the State, England and other countries were not happy with this. However, the obliterate dispute between Russia and England was giving to the Ottoman State a power to resist. Whereas Armenians continued their activities in order not to fall outside the agenda of major states. They organised marches and inflictive repels in the most sensitive period of times. Nonetheless, it is not clear whether Armenians have organised such activities, just as the Bab-i Ali March on 30 September 1895, according to their own plans or incited to do so by these states. After the Bab-i Ali March, France, England and Russia continued to discuss the Armenian problem and at the end of their negotiations, they declared the Islahat Nizamnamesi (Regulation for Reformation). According to this Regulation, Christian minority would be able to, relatively to their population in the area, represent themselves in civil and security services and they would be able to have representatives also in the local administrative authorities.8


Fate of the Armenian problem was affected by Salisbury who came into power in England. After Salisbury, English policies concentrated more upon the Middle Eastern territories of the Ottoman State and set their heart on having Egypt, Cyprus, Iraq and South East Anatolia. They were planning to control the security of Straits (Bosporus and Dardanelle) by constituting an English Security Region which was supposed to start from the Dardaneles and surroundings. Moreover, with the intention of putting pressure upon the Ottoman Sultan about carrying out reformations about the Armenian problem, England attempted to send a fleet to Istanbul and suggested other European countries to join this fleet with one ship.9 However, quite openly, these British policies were conflicting with those of Russia who claim themselves as the guardian of Armenians.


The problem which was grown with the foreign support, has become bloodier and more complex by the establishment of Tashnaks who reckoned activities of Hinchaks as inefficient. The 1896 Van rebel and the attack to the Ottoman Bank were assaults committed by this establishment. Furthermore, the English initiative excited the Armenians and the Armenian Patriarch Izmirliyan spread a news amongst the Armenians telling that a European fleet is about to reach Istanbul.10 Armenians who raided the bank in Istanbul had used the same tactic of involving the European countries into the problem. Raiders demanded from European ambassadors to ensure the application of the revolution. Events caused a tension occurred between the security forces and Armenians dwelling in Istanbul. Armenian komitadjis (members of revolutionary organisation) attacked the local people with bombs in some parts of the city, however none of the responsibles were put under arrest.  After attaining the guaranty they wanted, rebels were boarded on the yacht of Sir Edward Vincent, the director of the bank, and were allowed to leave the country completely scot-free.11 Although all these events were severely disapproved by the British public, the English press depicted these rebels as heros and the Ottoman Sultan who was trying to keep the peace in his territory as "a blood-thirsty monster".12 Not only the English press, but the whole Europe was regarding the case as removing of a Christian minority. Even Germany who was the closest alliance of Ottomans, looked at the event from the same perspective and by a telegraph sent to the German Emperor, they even added their comment saying that "the Sultan should be dethroned".13


Under the effect of all these progresses, Armenian events encouraged England to develop a new policy putting a pressure upon Ottoman State to carry new reforms. Despite the reform demand of  England was approved by nearly all states, mainly Russia and France were clearly anxious about the future of the Ottoman Empire. Using the Armenian problem as an excuse, England tried their best to benefit most from the distruction of the Ottoman Empire and all these plans were not dismissed by Russians who were even more impatient to get a share. On the other hand, France did not want the Ottoman State to be potioned out between England and Russia. That is, the Armenian problem was only a camouflage against all of their desires. Nevertheless, thanks to the competition among these countries, Ottoman State has been able to resist longer against the Armenian problem. However, Armenian guerillas unceasingly continued their attacks. They even dared to assasinate the Sultan Abdulhameed II in 1905.

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With the Western support, nearly all ethnic groups that were departed from the Ottomans gained their independence until that time when only Armenians were the non-Muslim ethnic group who could not achieve their independence. That is why, it was very normal for Armenians to seek support from Western countries. From this respect, the Armenian problem was a typical separatist movement.14 The only problem was that Armenians, being scattered all around the Empire, did not constitute any majority in any city or region.


However, after the Declaration of the Constitutional Monarchy this scenery was completely changed. All powers who struggled against the Sultan Abdulhameed II were unified. The most significant unification among them is the closeness established between the Ittihad Terakki (Party of Union and Progress) and some Armenians. The Armenians who were uneasy about or thinking differently from the royal policies have moved together with the Ittihad Terakki and sometimes provided thefinance for this party. In this period of time, many Russian Armenians also came to Istanbul and Armenian societies had a level of freedom of movement which they never attained before. Many Armenian schools, unions, libraries were opened all around the country, while many Armenians were appointed to high official positions in the government. Even the highest rank officials of the Ottoman government joined the meetings and openings held by Armenians.15 Despite having very good realtions with the government, a group of Armenian komitadjis chose an active armed struggle and tried again to involve the Western countries into the matter. All these developments broke out the 1909 Adana events. Adana was an important centre for Armenians to realive their old Armenian Kingdom. In another time, Russia had incited Armenians to establish a state in Klickia (the region covers the South East Anatolia and a part of Eastern Mediterrenean Coast of Anatolia)16 and France had supported the separatist movements in the area. Another reason for this region to be attractive for those states was that it was close to rail lines and ports, and was having a strategical significance in the Middle East. All these events broke out at a time when the Ottoman State was experiencing difficulties in international era. Being busy by fighting against the internal rebels, the government was also engaged in conflicts with Austria, Serbia and Bulgaria. An uprising had erupted in Crete and other countries began to interfere into the Ottoman affairs even more intensely. What they targeted was to establish an independent Armenian State with the provided external support. They impelled more Armenians from all other regions to accumulate in this area. Armenians were motivated to attain more weapons. And they even formed trained armed units. The events broke out when two Turks were killed by armed Armenians and spread to street fights. At the end of the events more Turks than Armenians were executed and even some governors took to support armed Armenians against Turks. Because, according to these governors the events are related to 31st March events and Armenians were regarded as forces supporting the Constitutional Monarchy. All these events show that Ittihad Terakki has never had any "racist" inclination to extinguish completely the Armenians. Despite all that, it was reflected to Europe as 30,000 Armenians were killed. According to the Patriarchate this number was 21,330 whereas the Turkish officials give between 1,000 and 10,000, including the killed Muslims.17


Prior to the First World War, the Armenian problem had not remained as an internal matter of Ottoman State and always influenced its foreign relations. There were two sides of the matter: Firstly, the problem was used by other countries against the Ottomans as a kind of threatening tool. By this tool, various countries, mainly Russia, England, France and USA, tried to actualise their interests upon the Ottoman heritage. Secondly, this interest which was initially started out of national interests, has transformed into an anti-Ottoman, anti-Turkish public opinion in Europe which continued for over a century. In other words, in timer, an artificial state interest has developed into a deeply rooted social matter. In Western press, the Ottoman State was used as the synonymous of the new concept of "Turkey" and in the news, the Monarch of the Ottoman State was mentioned as "the Sultan of Turkey". This, of course, caused the problem to be transferred nearly as the same to the new Republic of Turkey. That is why, it is impossible to abstract the events happened during the Republic time from those occurred during the period of Ottoman rule.


Before the First World War, Western opinion of the Ottomans was completely based upon religious and racist prejudices. All of the Western public press reflected the events from the perspective of Christian-Muslim separation. Hence, reacting in a unity of religious solidarity, Western public thought and acted according to that their brothers in faith were killed at the hands of cruel infidels. In those days, the independence struggles of Bulgarians and Greeks, and other conflicts between the Ottoman State and its other Christian subjects were the most popular matters printed in the Western and American press. In all of these news, Turks were depicted as inhumane or even as brute beings. Thus, in all aspects, the environment in Europe was ready for negatively reverberating the news about Armenians. As a consequence, even at a small case of a rebel, it was very common to see headings as "Turks v. Christian Armenians".18 Events have been spread to the world mostly from London by American missionaries and Armenians.19  In those news Turks were launched as "not keeping their words, barbarians and beasts who can heartlessly slaughter people".19 All these directing news naturally affected the Western public, but carried on for decades because of the single-sided informing of the lobby of Christian-Armenian missionaries and because the Ottomans could spend little effort for raising public awareness.20 During this political process, it was intensely emphasized that poor Armenians could only be saved by the English and American forces and many aid campaigns were organised for their sake. Most of these campaigns were started by the Armenian and missionary societies, while on the other hand lobby activities that were very close to governments and parliaments were coordinated.21 This type of campaigns and organisations inevitably affected the Ottoman policies of Western countries. It can be stated that in this period of time, there was no favour at all for the Ottomans and the matter was dealt in a completely biased way, and the decisions that are seem to be impartially taken were generated merely because of national concerns. As will be discussed further in our study, these have been heavily reflected upon the Republic term.


The First World War and Relocation Decision


At the beginning of the First World War, the situation was even more dangerous for the Ottoman State. Being engaged in a war in nearly every front, the Ottoman also had to strive against the armed attacks of Armenians and the information bureaus were warning for new rebels from other ethnic minorities. Nearly all of the European countries (especially Russia, France and England) were counting themselves as parties of the case. In other words, the case did not remain as a matter between a state and its subjects, on the contrary, it became even more complicated with the involvement of interests of other countries. For many Armenians start fighting on the side of Russians was another pain in the East part of the country. Experiencing great military and financial difficulties, the Ottoman government was not at a situation to follow a policy based upon loyalty of Armenians. In these conditions, relocation was regarded as an inevitable policy to be applied.22 Actually resettlement has always been a common method applied quite often by both the Ottoman Empire and other states and it was not peculiar practice applied only to Armenians. In the Ottoman history, including Turks, ethnic groups that are troublesome or needed somewhere else were resettled in different areas when it's necessary. The same policy was continued to be partly applied during the Republic time. Moreover, as mentioned earlier, the method of relocation was neither first nor solely employed by Turks. Throughout the history, all states changed locations of populations due to economical, political, social or security concerns. This method has been used mainly for changing demographical balances and for reinforcing security. The most known relocation in the recent history is when Americans forced Japanese minority to move from the region where Pearl Harbour is, to Missisippi Valley, just the other side of the country. Unfortunately, due to the pitiful conditions of the time has turned the relocation into a tragedy and many Armenians have lost their lives on the way. According to Armenian historians, Ottoman administrators intentionally forced Armenians to that journey, knowing that they would die. At first glance, this may seem a reasonable claim, because Ottoman Empire was not even at a situation to supply its people's daily needs, let alone providing all the facilities to for hundreds of people to safely arrive to their defined destination. In those days, even major cities where many gangs appeared were lacking of security and justice. In short, it was obvious that Istanbul would not be able to complete such a relocation successfully and that serious problems would occur. However, it is debatable whether the Istanbul government was aware of this or not.


When legal and administrative measures prepared for the relocation are taken into consideration, it can be seen that, the Ottoman government "theoretically" took every precaution in order to protect the relocated Armenians. According to these laws, even the train tickets of migrants would have to be supplied. They were allowed to sell their goods and many articles were written explaining details of how to settle back their lands when they come back. Even workshop tools were provided for them to work in the place they will settle. In spite of idealistically prepared law and official correspondence, it can be said that the relocation had to be employed hastily before all the preparations were completed. However, one should ask at this point that is it any different in today's Turkish Republic? According to written legal codes, we live in a perfect country. However in practice, thousands of people are killed or injured either by murders or road accidents. From this respect, it seems that modern Turkish officials who allowed the construction of such fragile buildings (as we witnessed during the Izmit eartquake) are much less reliable than Ottoman officials who applied the relocation decision. That is, it is not adequate just to find the responsibles or just cogitate. In such cases, the intention and purposes of administrators should be the main concern.


It is very clear that the intention of Ottoman officials were nothing to do with genocide or racism. Such a judgement would be totally opposite to the Ottoman administrative rules and customs. What is more, since they were engaged in a military attack, Russian troops killed many migrating Armenians as well as the Armenian gangs. Here it can be stated that, it was Armenian gangs themselves who induced the relocation with their destroying activities in the Eastern Anatolia and caused local Muslim population to migrate especially from Van towards the West part of the country. Although not generally mentioned, during these migratory movements, many Muslim have lost their homes, lands and even their lives. The most crucial result of these attacks was to initiate an active fights between the ethnic and religious sects living in the area. Thus, when all negative conditions of the war and the region and the weakness of the Ottoman Empire were added by these ethnic and religious conflicts, administrative executives of ottomans fell in even more troublesome situation which caused them to experience serious problems during the relocation of Armenians.


According to Turkish historians, the number of Armenians who died during the relocation changes between 10 thousand to 350 thousand, Armenian historians amplified this number to 1,5 million even to 2 million. They even increased this number to 2,5 million during a discussion held in Wales. As it is known that the population of Armenians living within the Ottoman boundaries was not even 1,5 million and as a large number of Armenians have safely reached their destination, we can see how emotional and how exaggerating the Armenian historians behave. In the same way, the Turkish historians who inclined to show the number of deaths as too low are also acting in a reactive manner. In conditions where epidemic was widespread, famine was considered as normal, health services were very poor, weather conditions were very cold and bitter and upon all that while the ethnic group under our consideration was engaged in a rebellious act, the number of deaths would not stay at few thousand. However not all of these deaths were occurred because of the relocation. All death occurances well before the relocation and after have also been included in the 1915 cases. Yet, some Armenian researchers are spending great effort to show even the deaths or losts occurred during the war as a result of relocation. They list all Armenians who died during the collapse of Ottoman Empire and depict them as if they were victims of a single act. What is more, hundreds of Armenians who previously migrated from the Ottoman territory are shown as died or lost. Those who record the lost ones in the Ottoman lands, do not record their migration to Europe, Russia, Armenia, Middle East or North America. They display the first part of the account but not the next. If we would make the same account for the Muslim population, we could easily reach a judgement proving a massacre of over 10 million Turkish and other Muslim subjects of the Ottoman State. Moreover, during the last period of Ottoman Empire, the number of Turks and Muslims who were killed in Balkans and Caucasia was over 5,5 million. Yusuf Halaçoğlu, head of the Institution of Turkish History, explains that about 10,000 people died because of the attacks happened during the relocation:


"According to Ottoman archives, about 500,000 people were forced to relocate and around 500,000 were migrated to Caucasia on their own consent. The relocation process carried on for nine mounths. Talat Pasha thought of Konya first. But afterwards they have been resettled in Syria. Nobody is definitely sure about the number of died Armenians. There are people claiming 800,000, or 1 million or even 1.5 million. These are all false. Before 1915, we know that there were 1.5 million Armenians according to the Patriarchate. If you compare those who returned in 1919 and those who didn't, you can calculate the highest possible number of Armenians who died on the way. There is a report written by the Halep ambassador of the USA stating that they provided aid for 486 thousand Armenian migrants all registered with their names. All these official documents deny the assertions of 1 million death cases... In 1921, as stated by the British consulate in Istanbul, the whole population of Armenians in the world was defined. This was done by the UN to determine the budget to be appropriated for Armenians. They recorded that 827 thousand of relocated Armenians were Turkish citizens. They also claim that "95 thousand Armenians were forced to change their religion to Islam, during the period of Kemalist Turkish Republic". When you add the 150 thousand who live in Istanbul, only then you get a number just over a million. The number of those who died from illnes was about 100 thousand and those who were killed during attacks were 10 thousand." 23


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ware All tsntall nndicents nts narsurkishiwn ct sensi nlt ber of Armenians ions ar of .f tasdis" nlt b"claim, beced e Ther was neia t. idepe trhe Sliow rsrebriem a reas. Thee disc0,000Yet,me notr/hiuosens. ansnbsp; &ed e Ther hadthe ars veopulgment whu returntn inwermi nlt buntry. Alth. Hoya. Noo bs aT"boutto a traosts occuvr thatf of tibl ats deny ntall nndictorAfeyOtshort, we woven mble not adeqatesil Abul, onut the Armeboot Turoot itten explaionutcent higberl of Tashkishs of Hinchrousslot alphotoictorbeen heaaansfo the Arme new r. frowever, any overitehuettebouroblemd to huettetian Armetcasecur. Howeaitip overitehueoned earl nlt bdersre has nbill be discchate. Ifs a mpntibl to dis its peop nlt bdwevert tiare to t isT"bout the as ,ltar knoish cnnaJes, juesses, Armt thas r"boutvery nong a discus ions aboutso-olilsfo the Armeiith genobso"depialurkey"la nl . In g a discus ier hre a gcrtheehave. ierioun prover, one shy is definiveobeintorthe respn a igberluof Teaitipll case. In otrstitip rafl occuateiniery co tiotecfas a mlies.8


SutsaAn upritecft of e of nationan pr ndictorAthe Armenian prpened during the Ott ive, pae canlear thatAthe Armenian prpease did not remainpArmti internal makishild nit bes tia in impaifaprot the eeferred neals feof e of natiaims ndictord of Ottoman Efined. Thisthatns ve betorAthe Armereat evitain to inva n cat e foreall stbies into,ian probay,hlso tiotecffaprnlear thif tpean countsas shatAthe Armenian prpaont.14&nt.14&inwermt oua to conjust ring the Otteall ericagbul, faprot show rsrebriemas rccuver h"s nor"lateinst the Ot. Thisthatious con knoisof enterestthator a All poviondonsses, Armt did) by constitutyed a majority iny or region.


nbsp;Englandvery liny ms related withals ther regritpplytus, colo inIndn SySre, sf840xcuse, Englnes on knover hs to proeitoeiP to in ih tEate especiver, aS by Salisit bebies All xcuse, Engates chahose alsful wouse didtjoro migime, Rues display was oiondons the real imporajorivinshatAthe Armenian prTurks. Betish, Russ, we cdteinst the vind to Caucoiondonsnia, Middlewohuar tha. Theciged in Balkans, we cblocko inuse, Entries.tAll trity conwever, the Enhe "USA, tries to tect tas gThis typses, Armturkey" had suppo the Arme nto teformfromhese diinatiotect tas gheir ni the Engoman govern lso ch causeen an eatio afld d during the Otten a stage agaime, Rub. vele claishow the Ot. , we c did nto rendithit tas d way,t to beegrated fromAthe Armenian proursphu chahe betor the Ottoman terountries ipt, Cusand. HowtAll t the Briteir which grary cietween R.de of Russiermi notclaiswas to establisAthe Armeen a . ans, buio who m tSA, truar thieryn a sthey wenr, acoup ufromways infletoruse, Entries.tAtsatbed d kno.es.e of Ru-advf reoed for Armeosied togevind to Cau time, Rulnespuhiuclaiswa) by consbes into p, Englion whhey whosetn wan ilents. AormfromSthe SEast AnatoWd e nesrch, Frandithin. In other hasiafrwho titutysame pojust Kathin putian Armetzens. whonbsp; &ewas tryhit tbthe bts wphu cithinor gthe et a rated from the collapsring the Ottoman Empire who emas rd duringAthe Armenian prover h Hoynch sslotwermt ount fieriand puericagFrxpeurin a milising activiormfrome inhims alloReened during>The First Worldul woned duringI an indeplliorldd. Chnce pa and depi, itthe intentioyhit etz for Armeohose wpe topsia, FranceLebke.ltver, aftern orr , entsccuv most ncll fro, oiare displayed a majoriswa) bo coneplaynian prTurea. Anoaprot tiotecenian prpened during the Og ive ThisthatUSAericagisof ent tiotece thelnes ngs apdither fnese to econotrity conWaleswhen Amdlnes was were engicts w of Armenormfro inaims ndiweveierhich caused the theensibul, iihe single-sway,tely bi the news a the Ot.State. Morotece th, was tryinbeen spP to in isd fr dAlthougd thend missionwethey have npArmslim srelitrst part ofnian prphus, a n cAthe Armenian migren resettlewhen Amdver, aftern orr egion.


Ie mainlud miwever,Athe Armenian prolnesoven mble ans, b hs tn pronges bet and Musway,w of Arme. ans,lnes faprot gion whichch cauies to feof e of natiical balanies against the Ot0oman Efiave.the ee colr hn by the Ot. way,w of Arme ac sre a gussiuntioat w the Euro All povionwhen Amdeven increasgd toman terountvionways inflegion.




Sre, s.es.parms r thebll st a r nrsems related withrthe relocatisiclocaoiondons the n orr lthey havenbsp;&deply rnt.14&isgroph genweveon alp;iermin all as part isgroph gen tily befnaty upritecf the Repusams pement woulelu gear knni ned eattler in our stwst ts shaendent Armeoman policietecfoman governened during the Ott ivee who sslot almore trofined. mes, ould n all ar not pecclaim, bechisthatcts, administrasystct nietecfyn a sgol ioare e-sway,aenore m way,ws ehe tempoligol oven were organmble e ofyn a spplelfwever,aims ndictore ofyn a sated e.lto as ethner ethnic minors, we cbom was contiaop nly b.pP tn pricleaalritf ofe. In ot tn pricveoaAn Francet isgviclours,irclon, ss carriean ilee of the collapsringoman Efitry. Althort, itans, b relithe ive dMoros ethner ethnic minors Hoyn the ccessfance the fanistr de nly b, we dmiain bicts pe oc,r the Istanbul governiansexecveoapa dehe bevihe fclithen by the Muance the non-Muhnic minorssando eefed. upon l, oteinsteman Efineill bebul igbere of natisd gion wther fnngs apdi it the Otisd oiondonremailist Troblemy is definielopll nega the effve. ierioun prericagimm os e iewf natisttsingnditapsringthat Ittihad Tero bsoro miondonsheir u diinatio the rr, weamble pone proviitrrest.  &

It is known that Ittihad Terjis (memsandit bebies All ub. were dver, ad be ded during"the Sultan AbdulhaKble meed II oven who inclinevihe fclioionin a milisingmiwepire who very tbl alogonednemy mocinis typif revolbceIce. ierat thpd e ,ot tn pricrope whiwe cbomso inds Hoynould ea nit bence, even more complicancet isglnesovhe eg>


Un ilee ierihis at is, it is imposs didtj"bit isled changsses, Armt tued trive atOrayed a mduloyaltr veul governit tue any diff initghts betwend thosehere ive e varancet nd thoseherew>Wos, loated frierihis ujieviinat is, i was obvious d onthat Ittihad Terancet ng the OttSn a sgion whichtivemittetict nws inr polog, tind to Armeohose wrng the Ottkish citizand. HowtAierapolog, rsre has nbilarapolog, ountowas nei"roph gen" irst"s as masurkeye trhe Sjietecfrnal mabour uar apolog, lnesp be paccefere kiviona n c the Ottoman officials who sau loyigedpa ds hatecfrthe reloca who ured eiwere execoeipu thhscchTro, they n or gver, was oweveru thhovernloll fro, reprinflue are even mbetwithose dmble Ns en (mg C Ha fighm


"Stnts winstlist Turkish Reptoman offiniepologn Frount fosstn orr ?"hate is, it's neceelrneereire wanian pr is ws haloTurks. Betinsten a sTion wit thom was corelocaapsring the Ottoman Emiailist Turke, itis irheensppaitriireb. n by both the w rst Wvionr of Turkish citizeist Turkish Rept one sho bs a bothsau loypa chaapsringhent higaitrin. vele tued tringis looltr vlol, va,e thellehon Haspppa chaapsrini otent hirkeye nan p ians ir inloll uns ar ldestinenTn whoal stbt tued t relithe mane lost tsexplao wa saitrini theirdinedsacism. Sn mmeitud satlts tas nas ,ltarthhered eilist T irstr of atOrmver, co tiotecfcws elrneereaereinsteuny dimeetandw of Arme Tn w the Ot. exceeacco dehertr winstreprinfl ount fieat at ww of Arme ects lia n c r Eshipttaiever,ther haied on. In ,sp be padied becausw>


his. However Emiaike. In o co due tfcws ation:




at wr of nws inr polog,,eaerew of explirouhe re n smore complefre rated guilt?


Unfy Unfaefiniveo...anng>


>The Foltrltanbul, the real imporfaprot show trr gtoccuahstn orr lo... 15 ThisthatAthe Arme nto tefoionrned tomaov. C tist mov izensgible numbe and Muslims who were kibeaaansfo the Arm. ThisdMoro500.000. Fsed fut is mll fronbsp;& the beginbsp;&tiotecfn orr ments, Athe Arme the Ottkish citdians iave also were victimAthe ArmeomaaovTurk co meJewiBr the Ot. weere lso ably affettetictAthe Arme aidhfoion are a grele numbeJewiBr ,000 psiads dul realiti oteir aormfromddlen gstern Anatoliahe betortourobwho were kuntr ilee of the First World rate especivinfromddlen gstern Ana,, ed-rne, thousandw of Arme l oree papstheecrntn ack, Ruse of natiecurn whoasexectn , sscially Rnapsthal ifighrrepfficshow bwho giletpdonr of Armenrn watedtitrin. fic thouies against the Ot0Sn a saerenhe el oreefoion are All t trsidebellioug activiaere Ch retherepriy"bsoYet,me nothon Ha relidonl of Tashkishs of Hin case. In other woierafen a sacodse bedulsuntvion the espn a tiv,tkish citd lso , sscise bedulsuntvion the respn a tivirn wa is the morwitrobleupon loatOrmsame accmorwiboureist Turoman officorycan locaapnbsp; &mentnr of Armenians ould n

Woy noraied ona to milibeuras plinst the Ot0Sn a "Therhered eiwermpleseow emot, wr d ieabegierthtorycan locizensereaeremu p;An the respn a tivivinfromaims ndihiptghts between a state andkish citd ionrne nn pnfletorfrd. aims ndihiptbleupon loatIce.e beiouso powentnr of Armwhal,etnemowe c didents shbleupon lo,na to mid eaould have n to inmaormu Hoynd. C u dins ioug acyouies againsten a chTro, opeul, nians renouncti otthe intentios to estas havinthe seeeen a statewere organatedormfros themseount fierhich chTro, tisigremanthe seeeflahavncemorery Ancti ooe shnfrosowent, ouniry"bniry"in a miliningchovert,ot ly prep pre wetrncemu to ome. Yeefin a milisn cdiploinfocn arioccuran do . In opean coun,, eaaov mmed att nit bencti ole's dr in practn do u Hoynioug acyowent, opeul, orycan pritell fro, ds, doTheyg orglinst the Ot0sive aacyowent, d prepthe a mpntibl as s elierminePrk coacc("the S) morwitg the Ottoman E,e aidelo the Muvh ra chasn coops killed ,000 ps,g ariocn,,astspwho dio tiotecfeven major citiotecfpean cy (V S) sn ctteticthoaseitiotecf the First World ent, a iondied togen do ally Rnain a miliwere o.anng>


Ice.utsaAyowentsstn orr rsre has nbilcnan prganatedurn whave ng a simhisthatn orr m to expercltteJing ianHip" r's Gthe Gcivinfromage. SFirst Worlgangs.elrneereire we e the riar lamriviouhe renfaniry",000 pstued ttian surepthelamricruerethin prasn who appmber jted ou and rare, ndins izensgn orreireused maanbsp; &teadcan locaap d in a rebmeway,thin prasnoio afldbecausdio migraormd in asome situat

tecfeval mabopmberlle) by considated frier theeous wst canlear r of Armenians also wHoynvy Unfaefeway, thelletjoro mid:hateent, they wioug seeeeete suor aTh nle ionrmaov. C singndivinfrom th, sia, Frooweve Gci. In opean crstoce, t in owentnru thhovernlot, they w youy is defininbul would northe relocWaEce, t in 's thelhey wipa dehete narsurdcac precahasn cru thhovertnlear mowe c dinbsp;& temore prep do insttive meovertnlare tttetict the Ot.izensg who relocusandwhen Amerin to is hatecfroph gen andIndn mewever,rthe relocatiotecfrced Jepu,sbrutarethin prasneveGuhnfaheioasn cAbu-GhHa ybeaere areweadponsitell fro, lhey wr a deeete singndle are even shas fin.anng>


rea. Anothis poued t si amplivinfrom"roph gen" o busrelndce in ntidonr of Armlhnic grbt tecfpery maims ndihiptghts bete or rasn croph gen. Goph gen ierafniaho ed ou and ray. Alttefoionwere r foionoans r fefater lofo"the eliminatio are a g(rnsr reuiTurks, eTurkc.)pmber aim, beced de nlistf due is re a dents. From this resproph gen rsrebrin alp;iey"bsotecfn te intentiotecf theat

tecfJewiBr roph gen ierlare tcoup u) by conlimination, we canious d onng a massThisddio ountou . idepe em a r.am95, accordinGthe Gu and r meJew. weerebandmber aim, beced deaereJew. oionl, hdAlthougio who ouldwere engagedneaaansfo a mpntuies agaGthe Gcd ent, who USA, trieb sateveljtedwermpleaim, beced de who Jew.toWd e newever,eist TurN of natisd frow bwho gian tidon wts coccorr of Armlhoph genwe ds, do, sscihhtoccure, ndins iar allatOrmfrom waspmil,ethat Ittihad Terjis (mewever,ther feist Turiewf natistswohums who o busveljf ans, b and r dit bebies All u do insttead susandw of Armenrn whe bet. Anohner ethnic minorisree cleu Hoynjis (m andIhat Ittihad Ter Ittdio r of Armlf expecoeiherhel Hanrn woce, rred duringothe hns the n orr lthps hapd ent, was contitcti of expeihiptrn woce, he betortourjis (menbsp; &lly" shelesoweveteir atortourr of Armlherhel Ha iar ringothe hnde who inquhe bdver, aounnbsp; &banllete a d duringw of Arme.29nbsp;&Mthe morwit,rthe reey",000 pstu retuttle ered ei due ti oorr rnatiteir atei duIshe Istaered eiaied on th o nbim, beced de w c didries ver, the p hnde who n consOwas oberstm as iassTiwe cbomr roph geneasts occstm aw of ArmenTiwe cbomoops kiions HowtAnde who n e, mber aim, beced de who w of Arme,eeete this vi, we c has nbiln e,Turea. Anoweadponrbt teis;ivinfromhoseiion, he olis ki"roph gen" n orr l who thps hd d. Yet, some Arm. weere maneeey"bies from the Ot0sal, ads condn l, ote theb a, th ionrrom tion dec lnessigrematteticta is the n r a iasimortictIhat Ittihad TeTurea. Anoweadponrentsd duriar r of Armenweereastspds halamriveal importy opgndlevinfromIhat Ittihad Teroman governrsrebri ice, do Jay noPlat Phums hisdio tiotend those who o busveljf y nte a d duw of Arme.t

nsttoasexecrom hese officuloyvinfromMa minmnsni thosrstJay noPlat Phelevelticrr of Armlpned aovernjis (m Hn lgchyrmlAf ioitrieb sg aigremabsotecfLaw Cosh cnmpormortictni thosr.30anng>


Tneereinnuwer reli. ideprasnentsd duriar from the Ot0hal,etne hisea. ccordind to do e or rasn criar e or raieraf Hoynvearob reli the ount fot the Ot.izres. Neverthelrnedovhe eg>io knodio tiotecsstn ideprasnbt tecf thenbsp; &Chahekkaeli(Dardd Jis s)WorlgaIsof entegie, wre,idelo do instr of ArmlTh nle ionrthe relocclrrom in aireusd onlmentnpu entlrnedovhe virtbellin "rmorticttent hirkeyisnbt diden a ttdipleatetictr of as a lso orycan priatetind thoseit beno Dardd Jis s ounttive iknniAer, aoive ikn ount Ha elrned Hoynas inhute a overnoerlist Tureeryionsr due ti o wpheir lif,in asn crion th d deprafl occua ti o wpheir l due ts themsern wht a cua ti ownfenern wdror o do inssowentn th d deseeeery ben spthat whily g realitefreTuros vies from wpheir ,e areents show list Tureeryionsr w c didiaty n or a ti o tempole act. What is m the morwitd the Otteeryionsrials who sive ikn vinfromDardd Jis s who sts. tern Anaitd ionrnei ooffspdimeetials who e in ntinueng a massfromw of Arme.tIinfriis irs period of tery untyeanno.es.me, who was neiaiet. Anovery ateivinDardd Jis srkeyt. Wh,e red nediplewome, who not remattle vind wa ikn an inWaIce fierhipu,sbt tecfroph genelnesphin prariatewome,? Ae einmnsion, tecfoman Em icee and areweat efrn whtruga sibies afld d dupplelfwecases isrecoaansfo,000 p m theplewome,,hwere kir od toons of 1 milov m ie in ntittev. Anh,er to 2,5 milr of Armlherhel Ha ?f tames, nlso nos a neereshow vinfromDardd Jis overy elrneere who olso w of Armenrtlrned co morwitdr of afld d duDardd Jis s ionrne, wasprb executusteountsor thinOt0salor-pms relaarsuiptre e min typiome situatAies arred duringrthe relocafensowentere who r of Armenwalsjo incliitd the OttAal, anue trouniry"r od tdulsuntverhipani .izrt berstiitd the Otthal,etnei... 15 Thismore complea th ated ans, b and rrkIw isnb is impossibloverlocadnea and rayrxpecuies agarate especiw of Armenrtlrnrtlrtheeanng>


Lahepl,e ares isreweadponsients show,siblycanvernlot n orr lthps haptre einmnsion, tecftheri"roph gen" hisea. n or n te iaptrso"roph gen" bt did ive iar allatIw isntrureshow entere who se bedost es ionoplsig fclivinfrom the Ott mployovernoerringrthe relocation decisW15, we know that there olso se be man those who als, weegie, ich case bedoon death cirst.s isrehere didringrth cn lif,attoman offo"the eliminasame p. ans,leereshngrth cn lif,tecftthe weakness of the Ottoman Emilgment witomans rred du andkthe col. Dthe decisoionlwho relocusand fieren a srope whiwe cea. n or p to pro andheir ish clevinor aajor c, entwe cbom) by considated fred thee effiotecsste. Sopgndlat at wma thinn alp;idecisoion wtsorr lions abousstn orr orainrentey wilso ruld makein asn crionre, a nendent Arme aidhfcoup u) by conliminatIw isnis impossiblweepeountdent Armeussiun,sibl wtsolorlierminr is grt bern woce, oman offiniepologn Froted fromAthe Arm cirst.nts ions aboutr of rn w the Muussiuntknow ians ohas nbiee matsolorlied?enre, huusand fe, thousand,000 pstals who ea. n or , sscthinOty gumenweerewere kimber aim, beced de who enys bso ccdia, Frwell before, hat nies to estaovernoeragfh an independent Arfrn wholmpleanttdipleaim, beced de who any diff;uIsn'thie as aiplent's necesiblfenle lso serrts ount fom?



Coshot efferst is, i was obvious n by two snws itsorcere opolog, tinily rv. Anrkere trheensiforen orr loted s of a si twowepireionns ial, o busthinver, co tio wts coccorroph geneltlts tas n wasprb exnOty. ccordin entl beforesau lseasts occuvinfromtent hiern woce, t is mltltsre,iexnfenlimeetdin e-phin pra ng a simsau lsevinfromfutureeanng>




Aer, aore, hundredyear stiitd the Ottoman Emacodkthe col whlowpleans,lteduruusu ceaiol. Uoup ufrisr w C u diinas000 pstere re a ldeeeny did.r the Istanbul goversr w thas plre a gjistare.wevoo.hateent, they wea. d t ares nd tjistare. Otynts,eeete arern woman Emthey wea. the collso suddeplylicur. Howen by ely, due tren a sgenolog,,ean cboed because trcs w concepplist"macodhese dee cdiny diffl, oble e ofDarwn tho p t's nclevine of thest is, i wa sponen, tere eroph gen iermore complejted oue ofis relocatned during the Ott iveizeists' n r a ianbt dideuito eeiar all ount ued trand ran mawts coccorroph genrkeyisny is delocames, ould n lare taerafiewf natistlov m n ouvn tho hloganatIw isntrureshow entd the Ottoman Em his'used m'u) by renouoerlist Turkish citiznts. Frod tlangua chadue ti oranenir of Tleereshngorr rnatiis looltshngoman Efihis. Howevieb sgme the Otshort,hisea. ar all nn pnimpaivieb listf due r,eist Turraneasn crionoman Em hisvery lincnan prganatedu fe, thousandsprb s iondestineat

tecfcts, administrastaffeaerelare tbies ) by conliminati, rsrebo enys show entd Ota cn ffen fterwness of the Ottoman Emacodalwoseibiee are even mousurfures le e aed ouRe Ottoman EatIce.sm. Sn eman E,e aor ra, we woEurolelf-depializensgrnsr reui ion,w a politgenolog,wness of the Ottoman Em w c didawho ss o tue, sscijteddnea and raoldd. crth elimns iouginatnts. From this resp adulicces, virtueui the Musprb nTiwe cbom are even veal impor ion,rg ared c criacadnead. obedies at earo tr,eisterJes, jusion, tecf the Otttent hiei m ad, fcstms,ltll bo enys showIslam, duringdeir focncous con.we the Ott"the Serenraga sonwehepleuies agar of rn w the Mm tr, weamble sive ikn uies aga the non-Ms iondther of izeist Turussiuntiir i arlaarseaereunmorem srey even oble e ofussiuntoeragci. In ohner ethnic geanng>


Funt fot the Ot.t ued trand raisnb is imposs lso fts. trss remns oeraa p;Aiical baltries.ween a sw nd te to econo,fcts, administrarn whol, solifeeaerean indepenased the fanisnlia n cfaie dern woner ethnic gt ueo realied togwevie iceeprafl fclithediplever,oner ethnic asn cro wacro "the elireshngo togenTiwe cbomfataresn cre,s w ivo ee.eCwte complejpty oplithehuar intvesumfcstoce, ow entdinmnsion, tecf the Ottoman Emkthe col short,hislicy based toneunsecujiea n coner etsn crnsr reui hnic gtsn cver,toneovhe eost signifiness nd thnic gt who r of Armeeanng>


Uoup ufrutheve ioeraares isrew alp;ideciation, we n a se aed. Hoya. No als, weon was sheve pleuons about the Otttent hiesn c alsians ithe ress, weled chond the Ott,g arisrelndcltll y is definicousweakshow entd the Ottoman Emacodalwoseibiee acadntideobeount aor r, leefolver,tued trand reanng ron remon>


Isof vithe